Planning for Organizational Future...

Planning for Organizational Future Future is always unpredictable (Fig 1), though it is an important aspect for planning for an organization. Future can be described only by two things namely (i) it is not known in the present and only people can make a guess about it, and (ii) it is going to be different than what exists today and from what is expected now. Fig 1 Unpredictable future The above statements are not principally new or particularly unusual. But these statements have far-reaching following implications. If present day actions and commitments are based on the predictions of future events then these are wasted attempts. The best thing which the people can hope to do is to anticipate the future effects of the events which have already permanently taken place. But it does not precisely mean that because the future is going to be different and cannot be predicted, people continue to function in the present way with the comfortable assumption that nothing is going to change. Though it is risky to make the unexpected and unpredicted future, still it is a normal activity. And it is less risky than sailing along on the comfortable assumption that nothing is going to change and also less risky than following a possibility of ‘what must happen’ or ‘what is most probable’. Management is required to accept the need to work systematically on making of the organizational future. But this does not mean that the management can work for the elimination of risks and uncertainties since this is not feasible. The one thing the management can try to do is to find, and occasionally to create, the right risk and to exploit uncertainty. The purpose of the work on making the future is not to decide what...

Task and Work Oriented Organizational Structure...

Task and Work Oriented Organizational Structure The organizational structure for the organizing of the activities and reporting relationships can be organized in five distinct methods (Fig 1). These are (i) structure based on functions, (ii) team organization, (iii) decentralized structure, (iv) simulated decentralization, and (v) systems structure. The first two of them are traditional structures while the remaining three are new ways of organizing the organizational activities. Fig 1 Methods for organizing and reporting relationships for an organization structure Each of the above five structures have been developed to meet specific needs. Hence, one may get an impression that each of them suits certain convenience and does not represent any reasoning. But in reality, each of these structures expresses different type of reasoning. Each takes one general aspect of managerial organization and builds a structure around it. Organization structure is needed to satisfy the minimum requirements with respect to (i) clarity, (ii) economy, (iii) direction of vision, (iv) understanding by the employees of their own task and the common task, (v) decision making, (vi) stability and adaptability, and (vii) maintenance and self-renewal. These are described below and given in Fig 2. Clarity – Clarity means that all the managerial components, and all the employees within the organization, particularly all the executives, need to know where they belong, where they stand, where they have to go for whatever is needed, whether it is information, cooperation, or decision. Clarity is not to be confused with simplicity. Actually, structures which appear simple may lack clarity. And apparently complex structures can have complete clarity. A structure in which the employees do not know without an elaborate organizational manual where they belong, where they have to go, and where they stand creates friction, wastes time, causes disputes and frustration,...

Dissecting of the Organization and Management Functions...

Dissecting of the Organization and Management Functions An organization is a corporate enterprise which is created by people and managed by people. Various types of forces act upon it. Economic forces set limits for the management for achievements. They create opportunities for management for the action. But these forces do not by themselves determine the nature of the organization and what it has to do. Management does not adapt the organization to the forces of the market. On the contrary it has to find these forces and has to create them. It requires enormous efforts on the part of the management and a huge time to bring changes in the basic nature of the organization for ensuring its growth and success. In fact, how the management makes decisions determines whether the organization is going to continue to prosper or to decline, to survive or eventually to perish. And this is true for successive managements of the organization. Profit and profitability are crucial for the organization. Profitability is not the purpose of but a limiting factor on the organizational activities. Profit is not the explanation, cause, or rationale of the organizational behaviour and decisions, but the test of their validity. All the persons who occupy the directors’ chairs are to be concerned with profitability. The first test of any organization is not the maximization of profit but the achievement of sufficient profit to cover the risks of economic activity and thus to avoid loss. Further, there is the prevailing belief that there is an inherent contradiction between profit and the organization’s ability to make a social contribution. Actually, an organization can make a social contribution only if it is highly profitable. To put it crudely, a bankrupt organization is not likely to be a good...

Strategic Planning and the Organization...

Strategic Planning and the Organization Organizational management is to plan for the future for the effective functioning of the organization. For this both the short range and the long range planning is needed (Fig 1). The idea of long range planning for the organization is rather new and was practically unknown several decades ago, but presently it is being done in most of the organizations. These days, there is hardly an organization which does not have an elaborate long range plans. Fig 1 Future planning for the organization It is rather necessary that each of the basic management decision is to be a long range decision. These days for an organization, especially in a large organization, ten years is considered to be short time span. Whether concerned with building new capacities or for introducing a new product in the market, or reorganizing the internal set up of the organization for its effective functioning, implementation of every major management decision takes years before it is really effective. And it has to be productive for years thereafter to pay off the investment made in men and money. Hence, the organizational management requires skills in making decisions with long futurity on a systematic basis. Management has no choice but to anticipate the future, to attempt to mould it, and to balance short range objectives with the long range objectives. Though looking into the future is not an easy job, yet the management is to ensure that these difficult responsibilities are not overlooked or neglected but are taken care off as well as it is to ensure that it is realistically possible. The future does not just materialize even if the management has very strong desires for it. The strong desires are not enough. The future needs decisions...

Importance of the Organizational Management...

Importance of the Organizational Management Organizations are parts in the society structure. They are part of the community in which they function. They exist for fulfilling the specific needs of the society as well as for satisfying some of the societal purpose. Hence, it is important that the organizations function successfully so that they can fulfill the tasks for which they are set up. They are to effectively and efficiently fulfill those needs of the society for which they have come into existence. Management, in turn, is an important part of the organization. It has no function in itself, indeed, no existence in itself. Management separated from the organization it serves is not a management. Management does not function efficiently and effectively when it becomes bureaucratic, or when it start serving some special interests in the society or when it fails in making the organization to function successfully so that it can fulfill the tasks for which it has been set up. Such a management has misconceived itself as an end and the organization as a means. This is a degenerative disease to which managements are prone, and especially those managements which do not stand under the discipline of the market test. The prime objective of an effective management is to prevent this disease to arrest it, and, if get caught in the disease then it is better to get cured. The existence of the management in the organization is since there is a necessity for it to fulfill certain tasks. The success of the management is determined by how they fulfill these tasks. These tasks are three in number, equally important but essentially different, which management has to perform to enable the organization in its charge to efficiently function and to make its...

Role of Concentration and Priorities in Effectiveness...

Role of Concentration and Priorities in Effectiveness Both the concentration and setting of priorities play a major role in an executive’s effectiveness. In fact, an effective executive does first things first and he does one thing at a time. The need of concentration is embedded both in the nature of the executive job as well as in him as a person. There are many apparent reasons for this. There are always more important contributions to be made than there is time available to make them. If someone analyses the richness of the important tasks to which the executive contributes and the time available with the executive for the tasks, then he comes up with an embarrassing situation which reveals a scarcity of time available for the work that really contributes. It is a fact that no matter how well the executive manages his time, the greater part of it is still not his own and hence, there is always a time deficit. The more an executive focuses on upward contribution, the more he needs fairly big continuous shares of his time. The more he switches from being busy for the achievement of the results, the more he has to make sustained efforts and these efforts require a fairly large quantity of time to bear fruit. And to ensure that this time which is really productive is available, the executive needs self-discipline and a very strong determination to say ‘No’. Similarly, the more the executive makes efforts at making strengths productive, the more he becomes conscious of the necessity to concentrate on the human strengths available to him on major opportunities. This is the only way to get results. But concentration is dictated also by the fact that most of the persons find it hard...