Safety in Rolling Mills...

Safety in Rolling Mills Worldwide, as the rolling speeds are increasing, greater emphasis is being placed on the aspects of safety while designing the mill equipment as well as during the finalization of the mill layouts. Providing high importance to safety is in the best interest of the designers, manufacturers and the users of the rolling mills. Safeguarding of the mill equipment is necessary for ensuring the safe working of the rolling mill after its commissioning. Manufacturers of the rolling mills have the objective to produce a competitive mill, while users desire to have a highly productive mill. However, before any of these objectives can be met, both the manufacturer and the user are to first determine how to engineer the mill using safe design principles to minimize operator’s risks. Investing in a safer workplace also reduces the expenses of treating injured workers, helps preventing workplace accidents besides boosting employees’ morale by conveying the message that the organization cares about its employees and wants to protect their health and safety. A brief overview of safety requirements for the equipment of rolling mill is given below. Common safety related definitions Safety is the ability of the equipment to perform its function while being transported, installed, adjusted, operated, maintained, dismantled, and disposed of under conditions of intended use specified in the instruction manual without causing injury or damage to health of the people carrying out these functions. Risk is a comprehensive estimate of the probability and the degree of the possible injury or damage to the health in a hazardous situation in order to select appropriate safety measures. Hazard is a condition or set of circumstances which can cause physical harm to the exposed personnel. Danger zone is any zone within or around the equipment in...

Employee education and training...

Employee education and training Technologies are changing very fast in today’s world. Latest technologies of yesterday have become outdated today and what is latest today will change tomorrow and newer method of production will replace the traditional methods of production of today. As new technologies have advanced, new procedures and new skills are required and there is an increasing need for skilled and highly trained employees who are able to meet these changing situations in the workplace. These changes require new job requirements and new methods of working which in turn require different combination of expertise, knowledge, and skills. In this environment of growing uncertainty, organizations are to be aware of the need for their businesses to search for new answers to the problems of productivity and quality. As the technology advances, necessity arises for a higher level of skills from the employees of the organization. Studies have shown that there is a long term shift away from unskilled to highly skilled jobs with the advancement of the technology. However, despite this increasing requirement for highly skilled employees, there is evidence that the skills gap in some of the organizations is widening with a growing deficit in key or core skills, which does not augur well for the future for these organizations. Education and training are essential for the development of employees’ capabilities. Both these activities are tied closely together and mutually reinforce each other in the promotion of employees’ development. These activities develop creativity, positive attitude, and a sense of responsibility and also help the employees to attain high degree of motivation. Through these activities, employees can improve their respective skills and develop a sense of fulfillment. Good-quality education, complemented by relevant training and skills development opportunities, prepare the employees for their productive...

Quality of Decisions and Organizational Performance...

Quality of Decisions and Organizational Performance Quality of decisions made is very important for the smooth functioning of an organization. It is a known fact that decision making is not just about selecting the right choices or compromises. Unless a decision has degenerated into work, it is not a decision. It is at best a good intention. Decisions made become effective only after they are implemented. Organizational management is required to make a large number of decisions on a continuous basis. These decisions are required to be made for the smooth running of the organization. The performance of the organization is greatly influenced by these decisions. Hence, making decisions is a matter of a huge responsibility for the management not only against the organization itself, but against their employees and other stakeholders, as well. The decision making process can be explained as a proposal considered by the management in the context of the organization and its strategic position. Alternatives, risks and potential outcomes are considered and then a decision is reached. There can also be a post audit and a feedback loop. The decision making process of the management is subject to human error as the management personnel have personalities, prejudices and a self-interest bias. Importantly, they have different attitudes to and appetites for risk. The decisions of the management are influenced by the decision making environment which consists of a unity of management’s experience, beliefs and perceptions on one side, and decision support tools and techniques on the other side. For determining the effectiveness of the decision made, the performance of the organization is normally measured on the basis of eight performance parameters. These performance parameters include (i) profitability, (ii) organizational effectiveness, (iii) continuous improvement, (iv) productivity of the processes, (v) quality of...

Standardization and the Process of Standardization...

Standardization and the Process of Standardization There is practically no economic activity nowadays which is not outlined, whether partly or totally, by the process of standardization. The worldwide acceptance of standardization is closely related to the economic globalization and the transformation of regulatory processes at the national, regional, and international levels. Standardization helps in reducing, simplifying, and organizing matters which are apt to become diversified, complicated, and chaotic if left uncontrolled. It is the process of formulating, issuing, and implementing standards. Standardization creates value at many levels. The output of the process of standardization is the creation of standards. The development of standardization as an engineering activity was pioneered in 1793 by Eli Whitney. Standardization of screw threads by Sir Joseph Whitworth dates back to 1841. Other instances of early standardization can be found during the emergence of the railway industry. Mass production became possible only through standardization. By the turn of the 19th century, standardization was already recognized in industrialized countries as a powerful tool to increase productivity through interchangeability and reduction of variety. The early part of the 20th century saw the establishment of several standardization organizations, which turned standardization into an organized and ongoing effort for industrial applications. By 1928, national standards organizations had been established in 16 industrialized countries. After the First World War, standardization, through reduction in variety, was established as a useful management tool for reducing costs. Some three decades later, seller market conditions, which prevailed for some time after the Second World War, put consumer interest under threat. To safeguard this interest and to meet the rising demand for standards for finished products, standardization activities increased in various countries, with the additional support and involvement of government and industry Definitions of standardization The standardization process is often...

Standards and their importance for the Organizations...

Standards and their importance for the Organizations The modern and globalized world cannot exist without standards which are sup­porting cooperation, trade, health, safety, and economic growth etc. In fact, standards exist in almost all aspects of modern life. They range from standards in information and communication technology which ensure the interoperability of diverse components to standards for the quality of products or services, and underlie areas ranging from the harmonization of international accounting systems to the governance of the social and environmental performance of the organizations. Stand­ards have a huge influence on everyday life. They play a key role in an environment where an organization is to be at its best for achieving success. They are open access documents with no charge or license fee for their use, apart from the cost of its purchase. The development of standardization as an engineering activity was pioneered by Eli Whitney, who in 1793 invented the cotton gin, a machine for separating cotton fibres from their seeds. Whitney later introduced the production of interchangeable components for the manufacture of guns. Standardization of screw threads by Sir Joseph Whitworth dates back to 1841. Other instances of early standardization can be found in the dawning age of the railway industry, as the establishment of a standard width between the two rails on the railway track, the manufacture of railway couplings, air brakes and the signaling system called for increasing levels of standardized work. But major impetus to the development of standards came around the turn of the 20th century, when a large number of national standardization organizations were founded, including organizations that are nowadays known as the British Standards Institution (BSI) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Their purpose was to create sets of rules for the design...

Energy Management in Small and Medium sized Re-rolling mills...

Energy Management in Small and Medium sized Re-rolling mills Energy consumption in small and medium sized re-rolling mills takes place in two forms namely (i) electrical energy, and (ii) fuel or heat energy. Electrical energy is used directly in main rolling process for shaping of hot billets into rolled product (rolling mill, and shears etc.), in reheating furnace (coal pulverizer, blower, and pusher etc.) and also in auxiliary (roll turning machines, pumps, man coolers, overhead crane etc.), and shop lighting. Fuel energy is used in the reheating furnace for raising the temperature of the feed material to desired temperatures (generally 1150 deg C–1250 deg C). The division of the energy in these two forms normally varies from mill to mill based on the practices employed as well facilities installed in the re-rolling mills in SME (small and medium enterprise) sector. However, the share of electrical energy in small and medium sized mill generally varies in the range 20 % to 30 %. Consumption of fuel energy takes the major share of the energy consumption and usually constitutes 70 % to 80 %. From a theoretical perspective, the energy in hot rolling is primarily determined by the requirements of reheating of feed material. The theoretical energy for deformation is only 0.02 GJ/ton (around 5000 kcal/ton), compared to 0.83 GJ/ton (around 200,000 kcal /ton) for heating billets when charged cold in the reheating furnace. Though it is not technically feasible to achieve theoretical energy consumption figures, but the energy efficiency of the rolling mill is depends upon how close it is to the theoretical consumption. Management of electrical energy consumption Out of the total electrical energy consumed by a re-rolling mill, the share of the process of rolling is in the range of around 60 %...