Management of the Process Productivity...

Management of the Process Productivity A process can be defined as a set of horizontal sequence of interrelated or interacting activities, which transforms inputs (needs) into outputs (results) for meeting the needs of customers or stakeholders. Inputs and intended outputs of a process can be tangible (such as equipment, materials or components) or intangible (such as energy or information). Outputs can also be unintended, such as waste or pollution.  The process needs a resource that provides the needed energy to the process for the transformation from the input to output to occur. Each process has customers and other interested parties (who may be either internal or external to the organization), with needs and expectations about the process, who define the required outputs of the process. A process is an interacting combination at any level of complexity, of people, materials, tools, machines, automation, software facilities, and procedures designed to work together for the common purpose of producing product of that quality which is needed by the customer. The process is central to the production system in the organization (Fig 1). The process instills quality in the product. Fig 1 Process of a production system The objectives of a process are normally (i) low cost operation, (ii) high performance, (iii) consistent product quality, (iv) high productivity level, (v) high yield, and (vi) product customization. An organization to function has several processes. The organization can reach its goals and objectives in an efficient and effective manner only if all the processes operate at a high level of productivity. Productivity is the quality or state of being productive. It is the measure of how specified resources are managed to accomplish timely objectives stated in terms of quality and quantity. It indicates how well the resources such as materials,...

Competencies and development of competency framework for organization...

Competencies and development of competency framework for organization The greatest strength of an organization, and the key to its success, is the quality of its employees and their ability to thrive and fulfill their potential while delivering the output expected from them. The competency framework enables the organization to clarify expectations and to set standards for performance throughout the organization. It is a guide to help management and the employees to understand the behaviours and skills expected of them and what they are to strive for achieving them. The concept of competencies emerged during the early 1980s as a response to the organizational changes. This concept drives the organization towards higher performance levels. During the subsequent decades, competency frameworks have become an increasingly accepted part of modern HR (human resource) practice in the organizations. Competencies A competency is considered to be a cluster of related knowledge, skills, abilities, and characteristics which are related to the performance of a significant aspect of the practice of a profession. The term ‘competency’ is usually defined as a combination of skills, attributes and behaviours which are directly related to the performance on the job. They are important for all the employees regardless of occupation, function, or level. Competencies normally focus on the personal attributes or inputs of employees in the organization. They are the behaviours (and technical attributes where appropriate) which employees are to have, or are to acquire, for their effective performance at work. Competencies are broader concepts which encompass demonstrable performance outputs as well as behaviour inputs, and relate to a system or set of minimum standards required for the performance at the work. Competencies are means to provide organizational focus, as building blocks for human resource systems, and as methods for certifying attainment of various...

Organizational Competencies...

Organizational Competencies  Organizational competencies are the competencies needed in the organization so that it can excel and remain competitive in the market. The competencies provide an inventory of expected behaviours, skills and attitudes which lead to the successful performance of the organization. Organizational competencies depend heavily on the competencies of the employees of the organization. Organizational competencies, in the most general terms, are those ‘things’ which the employees of the organization are to demonstrate to be effective in their job, role, function, task, or duty. These ‘things’ include (i) job-relevant behaviour (what the employees say or do which result in good or poor performance), (ii) motivation (how the employees feel about a job, organization, or geographic location), and (iii) technical knowledge/skills (what the employees know/demonstrate regarding facts, technologies, their professions, procedures, jobs, and the organization, etc.). Competencies are identified through the study of jobs and roles. The term ‘competency’ is usually defined as a combination of skills, attributes and behaviours which are directly related to successful performance on the job. They are important for all the employees regardless of occupation, function, or level. An efficient organization keeps into focus the competencies on performance development/which enables its employees to align their individual performance with values and strategy while maximizing the individual performance in the pursuit of specific work-related objectives and behaviours. Organizational competencies can be broadly divided into (i) core values, (ii) technical competencies, and (iii) core competencies. Core values are the organizational values which are the shared principles and beliefs. These principles and belief unite all the organizational employees and guide them in their actions. Technical competencies are those specific competencies which are usually required to perform a given job within a job family. Technical competencies cover the various fields of expertise relevant to...

Safety in Rolling Mills...

Safety in Rolling Mills Worldwide, as the rolling speeds are increasing, greater emphasis is being placed on the aspects of safety while designing the mill equipment as well as during the finalization of the mill layouts. Providing high importance to safety is in the best interest of the designers, manufacturers and the users of the rolling mills. Safeguarding of the mill equipment is necessary for ensuring the safe working of the rolling mill after its commissioning. Manufacturers of the rolling mills have the objective to produce a competitive mill, while users desire to have a highly productive mill. However, before any of these objectives can be met, both the manufacturer and the user are to first determine how to engineer the mill using safe design principles to minimize operator’s risks. Investing in a safer workplace also reduces the expenses of treating injured workers, helps preventing workplace accidents besides boosting employees’ morale by conveying the message that the organization cares about its employees and wants to protect their health and safety. A brief overview of safety requirements for the equipment of rolling mill is given below. Common safety related definitions Safety is the ability of the equipment to perform its function while being transported, installed, adjusted, operated, maintained, dismantled, and disposed of under conditions of intended use specified in the instruction manual without causing injury or damage to health of the people carrying out these functions. Risk is a comprehensive estimate of the probability and the degree of the possible injury or damage to the health in a hazardous situation in order to select appropriate safety measures. Hazard is a condition or set of circumstances which can cause physical harm to the exposed personnel. Danger zone is any zone within or around the equipment in...

Employee education and training...

Employee education and training Technologies are changing very fast in today’s world. Latest technologies of yesterday have become outdated today and what is latest today will change tomorrow and newer method of production will replace the traditional methods of production of today. As new technologies have advanced, new procedures and new skills are required and there is an increasing need for skilled and highly trained employees who are able to meet these changing situations in the workplace. These changes require new job requirements and new methods of working which in turn require different combination of expertise, knowledge, and skills. In this environment of growing uncertainty, organizations are to be aware of the need for their businesses to search for new answers to the problems of productivity and quality. As the technology advances, necessity arises for a higher level of skills from the employees of the organization. Studies have shown that there is a long term shift away from unskilled to highly skilled jobs with the advancement of the technology. However, despite this increasing requirement for highly skilled employees, there is evidence that the skills gap in some of the organizations is widening with a growing deficit in key or core skills, which does not augur well for the future for these organizations. Education and training are essential for the development of employees’ capabilities. Both these activities are tied closely together and mutually reinforce each other in the promotion of employees’ development. These activities develop creativity, positive attitude, and a sense of responsibility and also help the employees to attain high degree of motivation. Through these activities, employees can improve their respective skills and develop a sense of fulfillment. Good-quality education, complemented by relevant training and skills development opportunities, prepare the employees for their productive...

Quality of Decisions and Organizational Performance...

Quality of Decisions and Organizational Performance Quality of decisions made is very important for the smooth functioning of an organization. It is a known fact that decision making is not just about selecting the right choices or compromises. Unless a decision has degenerated into work, it is not a decision. It is at best a good intention. Decisions made become effective only after they are implemented. Organizational management is required to make a large number of decisions on a continuous basis. These decisions are required to be made for the smooth running of the organization. The performance of the organization is greatly influenced by these decisions. Hence, making decisions is a matter of a huge responsibility for the management not only against the organization itself, but against their employees and other stakeholders, as well. The decision making process can be explained as a proposal considered by the management in the context of the organization and its strategic position. Alternatives, risks and potential outcomes are considered and then a decision is reached. There can also be a post audit and a feedback loop. The decision making process of the management is subject to human error as the management personnel have personalities, prejudices and a self-interest bias. Importantly, they have different attitudes to and appetites for risk. The decisions of the management are influenced by the decision making environment which consists of a unity of management’s experience, beliefs and perceptions on one side, and decision support tools and techniques on the other side. For determining the effectiveness of the decision made, the performance of the organization is normally measured on the basis of eight performance parameters. These performance parameters include (i) profitability, (ii) organizational effectiveness, (iii) continuous improvement, (iv) productivity of the processes, (v) quality of...