Understanding the Organization...

Understanding the Organization An organization consists of a system where two or more people work together to achieve a group result. In the organization organized human activities take place. These human activities are the co-operative activities of two or more persons. The organization is the process of dividing up of these activities into various tasks to be performed and the coordination of these tasks to accomplish the activities. The structure of an organization can be defined simply as the sum total of the ways in which it divides its activities into distinct tasks and then achieves coordination among them. An organization is a basic social unit which is generally established for the purpose of achieving the set objectives. The organization is considered to have several distinct features. These features can be (i) a common objectives or an accepted pattern of purpose, (ii) a set of shared values or common beliefs which provide individuals a sense of identification and belonging, (iii) a continuity of goal oriented interaction, (iv) a division of work purposely planned for achievement of the objectives, and (v) a system of authority or a chain of command to achieve conscious coordination of efforts for achieving the objectives. Organizations can be either informal or formal. An informal organization can be characterized by some of the features of the formal organization, but it lacks one or more of these features. Individuals who share a common value may meet regularly to foster some objectives, and this group can become a recognizable formal organization. Some informal groups never develop the consistent characteristics of a formal organization, however, and simply remain informal. Formal organizations almost inevitably give rise to informal organizations. Such informal groups can be regarded as spontaneous organizations which emerge since individuals are brought together...

Stages during the Development of Management Concepts...

Stages during the Development of Management Concepts Management is considered to be the process of getting planned things implemented through and with people within the available resources of the organization. Management consists of accomplishment of predetermined objectives through planning and directing of efforts and the organizing and employing of the human and material resources. Management is an approach which enables the realization of the desired results (generally expressed in terms of performance) by taking actions to achieve those results and by dealing with the dangers brought in by external and internal factors (environment) within the organization. Development of the management concepts has taken place in several stages. During these stages, different approaches for the management concepts have been developed. These stages provide the information about the approach which was predominant during the period of the stage. These management approaches have been developed and tested over time. Elements from these approaches which have been proven successful can be taken and integrated to arrive at a unified system of management practice to suit a particular situation in an organization. During the study of the stages of the management concepts, it can be seen that there is non-linearity and every stage involves active interplay of components which cannot be separated into distinct elements. Further, since there is continuous evolvement of management processes, their identification with a certain stage is a bit vague, though there are some practices which are dominating during each stage. Though, it is difficult to predict the timings for these practices, there are periods in the stage when the specific practice has been developed and applied with sufficient regularity. These regular practices of the various stages are given below. Stage of scientific management The basis of the scientific management is considered to be the...

Management of Workplace Activities...

Management of Workplace Activities Workers are the employees of the organization who physically carry out the work at the workplace. To perform efficiently and in a professional manner workers need knowledge, capability, and many qualities and traits.  For doing the work at the workplace, workers work with various tools, equipments, instruments, implements and processes.  The performance of the organization depends on how efficient the workers are at their workplace. Further, healthy, well trained, knowledgeable, disciplined, motivated, safe, alert, honest, and hardworking workers manage their workplaces in a manner which make them more productive. The traits, which the workers need for efficiently managing the activities at the workplace, include teamwork, integrity, commitment, and work ethic. Workplace is the place where a worker performs his activities. There need to be dynamic alignment of workplace activities with the work environment for efficiency, peak performance, and reduction in the costs. In a way, what is workplace for a worker is very much similar to what is an organization for a management. The performance of the worker depends on how he manages his workplace activities. He is required to manage the workplace activities (Fig 1) ably, strongly, and proficiently to be productive. Workers who manage the workplace activities well make a difference in the workplace and have a voice, a say in how the work is done. Fig 1 Management of workplace activities A worker to be professional is to conduct himself with responsibility, accountability, and excellence. It means proper planning of the workplace activities along with communicating effectively and appropriately and always finding a way to be productive. It also means managing of available resources at the workplace efficiently. The worker is required to be ethical, team oriented, and to possess strong interpersonal and problem solving skills. Main...

Management of the Process Productivity...

Management of the Process Productivity A process can be defined as a set of horizontal sequence of interrelated or interacting activities, which transforms inputs (needs) into outputs (results) for meeting the needs of customers or stakeholders. Inputs and intended outputs of a process can be tangible (such as equipment, materials or components) or intangible (such as energy or information). Outputs can also be unintended, such as waste or pollution.  The process needs a resource that provides the needed energy to the process for the transformation from the input to output to occur. Each process has customers and other interested parties (who may be either internal or external to the organization), with needs and expectations about the process, who define the required outputs of the process. A process is an interacting combination at any level of complexity, of people, materials, tools, machines, automation, software facilities, and procedures designed to work together for the common purpose of producing product of that quality which is needed by the customer. The process is central to the production system in the organization (Fig 1). The process instills quality in the product. Fig 1 Process of a production system The objectives of a process are normally (i) low cost operation, (ii) high performance, (iii) consistent product quality, (iv) high productivity level, (v) high yield, and (vi) product customization. An organization to function has several processes. The organization can reach its goals and objectives in an efficient and effective manner only if all the processes operate at a high level of productivity. Productivity is the quality or state of being productive. It is the measure of how specified resources are managed to accomplish timely objectives stated in terms of quality and quantity. It indicates how well the resources such as materials,...

Competencies and development of competency framework for organization...

Competencies and development of competency framework for organization The greatest strength of an organization, and the key to its success, is the quality of its employees and their ability to thrive and fulfill their potential while delivering the output expected from them. The competency framework enables the organization to clarify expectations and to set standards for performance throughout the organization. It is a guide to help management and the employees to understand the behaviours and skills expected of them and what they are to strive for achieving them. The concept of competencies emerged during the early 1980s as a response to the organizational changes. This concept drives the organization towards higher performance levels. During the subsequent decades, competency frameworks have become an increasingly accepted part of modern HR (human resource) practice in the organizations. Competencies A competency is considered to be a cluster of related knowledge, skills, abilities, and characteristics which are related to the performance of a significant aspect of the practice of a profession. The term ‘competency’ is usually defined as a combination of skills, attributes and behaviours which are directly related to the performance on the job. They are important for all the employees regardless of occupation, function, or level. Competencies normally focus on the personal attributes or inputs of employees in the organization. They are the behaviours (and technical attributes where appropriate) which employees are to have, or are to acquire, for their effective performance at work. Competencies are broader concepts which encompass demonstrable performance outputs as well as behaviour inputs, and relate to a system or set of minimum standards required for the performance at the work. Competencies are means to provide organizational focus, as building blocks for human resource systems, and as methods for certifying attainment of various...

Organizational Competencies...

Organizational Competencies  Organizational competencies are the competencies needed in the organization so that it can excel and remain competitive in the market. The competencies provide an inventory of expected behaviours, skills and attitudes which lead to the successful performance of the organization. Organizational competencies depend heavily on the competencies of the employees of the organization. Organizational competencies, in the most general terms, are those ‘things’ which the employees of the organization are to demonstrate to be effective in their job, role, function, task, or duty. These ‘things’ include (i) job-relevant behaviour (what the employees say or do which result in good or poor performance), (ii) motivation (how the employees feel about a job, organization, or geographic location), and (iii) technical knowledge/skills (what the employees know/demonstrate regarding facts, technologies, their professions, procedures, jobs, and the organization, etc.). Competencies are identified through the study of jobs and roles. The term ‘competency’ is usually defined as a combination of skills, attributes and behaviours which are directly related to successful performance on the job. They are important for all the employees regardless of occupation, function, or level. An efficient organization keeps into focus the competencies on performance development/which enables its employees to align their individual performance with values and strategy while maximizing the individual performance in the pursuit of specific work-related objectives and behaviours. Organizational competencies can be broadly divided into (i) core values, (ii) technical competencies, and (iii) core competencies. Core values are the organizational values which are the shared principles and beliefs. These principles and belief unite all the organizational employees and guide them in their actions. Technical competencies are those specific competencies which are usually required to perform a given job within a job family. Technical competencies cover the various fields of expertise relevant to...