Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management Plan for a Steel Project...

Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management Plan for a Steel Project The environment clearance (EC) process for a steel project (Fig 1) has the following built in steps. These steps are (i) screening, (ii) scoping and consideration of alternatives, (iii) baseline data collection, (iv) impact prediction, (v) assessment of alternatives, description of mitigation measures and environmental impact statement, (vi) public hearing, (vii) environment management plan, (viii) decision making, (ix) monitoring of the clearance conditions. Fig 1 Process for obtaining environment clearance for a steel project The environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental management plan (EMP) is part of EC process. EIA and EMP is normally necessary for obtaining EC for (i) those projects which can significantly alter the landscape, land use pattern and lead to concentration of working and service population, (ii) those projects which need upstream development activity like assured supply of mineral products supply or downstream industrial process development, (iii) those projects which involve manufacture, handling and use of hazardous materials, and (iv) those projects which are located near ecologically sensitive areas, urban centres, hill resorts, and places of scientific and religious importance. For obtaining EC for the steel project, it is essential that a report covering the EIA and EMP) is submitted to the regulatory authorities. This report assists the process of decision making with regards to the EC for the project. In addition to getting EC for the project, the purpose of the EIA and EMP report is to take into account the environmental aspects of the project not only during its implementation but also after its commissioning. The purpose of EIA is to identify and evaluate the potential impacts (beneficial and adverse) of the steel project on the environmental system. It is a useful tool for decision making based...

Tender Technical Specification and its Contents...

Tender Technical Specification and its Contents Tender documents are prepared for the purpose of procuring materials, production unit, services, or site activities. They are used for calling the bids. A tender document (Fig 1) usually consists of three parts, namely (i) notice inviting tender, (ii) commercial specification, and (iii) technical specification. Fig 1 Components of tender document Technical specification is that part of the tender documents which provides to the bidder technical details of the materials, plant and equipment, services, or site activities which the bidder is to supply if he becomes a successful bidder. In case a plant unit is to be procured, then the technical specification is very complex since all the four types of procurements get combined into one specification. Technical specification becomes contract technical specification after incorporating the changes agreed with the bidder during the tender negotiations. The technical specification is the most important section of the tender document, both for the purchasing organization as well as for the bidders, since it is the specification which sets out precisely what characteristics are required from the materials, plant and equipment, services, or site activities being sought by the purchasing organization. Technical specification is a comprehensive document which clearly, accurately and completely describes in detail what the purchasing organization wants successful bidder to supply. A clear, accurate and complete specification is the foundation of any purchase, and ensures the best chance of getting what the purchasing organization wants. Whether the purchase is for a small simple item, or a large complex plant, or the activities to be performed at the construction site, the technical specification needs to clearly outline the requirements to the bidder. Technical specification has five mandatory requirements mainly (i) title of the specification, (ii) scope, (iii) statement of requirements, (iv) requirement for...

Synthetic Slag for Secondary Steelmaking...

Synthetic Slag for Secondary Steelmaking Synthetic slag consists of prepared mixture of several individual oxides which is used during secondary steelmaking to assist the steel treatment in the ladle from the viewpoint of effective refinement. Synthetic slag practice is normally used to obtain clean steels and also for the desulphurization of the liquid steel. Secondary steelmaking is a critical quality control step between the primary steelmaking and the continuous casting of the liquid steel. A key feature for success with the secondary steelmaking processes is the slag control. Use of synthetic slag which is specifically designed to have the required chemical composition and physical properties helps in the slag control. The  desirable properties of the synthetic slag include (i) slag is to have high sulphide capacity, (ii) it is to be basic in nature, (iii) it is to be fluid to obtain faster reaction rates, and (iv) it is not to cause excessive refractory wear. The secondary steelmaking slag is in liquid form in the ladle and floats on the surface of liquid steel which is usually at temperature of 1,600 deg or higher. It acts like a sponge to absorb the impurities consisting mainly of sulphur and non-metallic inclusions. The design of the slag is a critical step impacting the efficiency of the steel refining processes during the secondary steelmaking. Slag regime in secondary steelmaking significantly influences the final quality of the produced steel, particularly with respect to the achieved desulphurization of steel. One of the possibilities for influencing the slag regime is the application of synthetic slags to the ladle slag, formed from slag-making additions during the liquid steel tapping. Synthetic slag practice during secondary steelmaking maximizes the efficiency of the steel refining process by (i) improving steel quality, (ii) improving productivity,...

Detailed Feasibility Report and its Preparation in Steel Sector...

Detailed Feasibility Report and its Preparation in Steel Sector A feasibility study aims to objectively and rationally uncover the strengths and weaknesses of a proposed project, opportunities and threats present in the environment, the resources needed to carry through, and ultimately the prospects for success. In its simplest terms, the two criteria to judge feasibility are cost needed and the value to be attained. A well-designed feasibility study provides a background for the project, a description of the project, accounting statements, technical details, and financial data. Generally, feasibility study includes technical development and project implementation. It evaluates the project’s potential for success and hence, perceived objectivity is an important factor in the credibility of the feasibility study for potential investors and lending institutions. It is necessary, therefore, that the feasibility study is conducted with an objective, unbiased approach to provide information upon which decisions can be based. Feasibility report is a base document for a steel project for the decision making with respect to investment in the project. Depending of the stage of the project, when the feasibility report is made, it is known as pre-feasibility report (PFR), feasibility report (FR), or detailed feasibility report (DFR). It is obvious that DFR is more accurate than FR both in technical aspect or financial analysis aspect. PFR study is a preliminary study undertaken to determine, analyze, and select the best alternative among several alternatives, both technically and financially. It is difficult and it takes time if each of the alternatives is studied deeply. Hence, shortcut method deems acceptable in the early stage is used to determine minor components of investment and production cost. If the selected alternative is considered feasible, then normally the study at the FR or DFR is taken up to get deeper analysis of the selected project scenario. Technically...

Technical Drawings and their Types...

Technical Drawings and their Types Technical drawings are also known as ‘engineering drawings’. They are means of communications and convey technical information of plant and equipment. They describe three-dimensional objects through the medium of two-dimensional paper. The process of producing technical drawings, and the skill of producing those, is often referred to as ‘drafting’. Technical drawing is normally accepted as legal document and is frequently being used for regulatory approvals. Technical drawings are most frequently used to establish engineering requirements. They describe typical applications and minimum content requirements. They are standardized tools of graphical language which avoid verbal exchanges. They are used and understood by the technical personnel speaking different languages and belonging to different countries and cultures. Technical drawings are prepared in such a way that they convey complete information of the plant and equipment clearly and concisely. They often contain more than just a graphic representation of the subject. They also contain dimensions, notes and specifications. Clarity is the essential aspect of the technical drawings. They normally represent two dimension view of the object though some drawings also provide three dimensional views. They are prepared either manually or with the aid of computer. They are generally prepared or printed in standard size of paper. Except a few category of drawings (e.g. process flow diagrams, control diagrams, piping and instruments diagrams, and single line diagrams etc.), all the drawings are normally prepared in plan and different section views usually to the scale in order to provide complete information of the drawing object. Often help of standardized symbols are taken in the drawing for depicting certain equipments or instruments. Those informations which cannot be given in the plan and sections view such as material specification, tolerances, and bill of materials etc. are normally given in a...

Iron and Types of Iron...

Iron and Types of Iron Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin word Ferrum). Its atomic number is 26 and atomic mass is 55.85. It has a melting point of 1538 deg C and boiling point of 2862 deg C. The density of iron is 7.87 grams/cu cm. It is a metal in the first transition series. Like the elements of other group 8 elements (ruthenium and osmium), iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, ?2 to +6, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Iron as a common metal is mostly confused with other metals such as different types of steels. Iron is by mass the most common element on the earth, forming much of earth’s outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element and the second most common metal in the earth crust. Steels contain over 95 % Fe. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust. Unlike the metals which form passivating oxide layers, iron oxides occupy more volume than the metal and thus flake off, exposing fresh surfaces for corrosion. Iron objects have been found in Egypt dating from around 3500 BCE (Before Common Era). They contain around 7.5 % nickel, which indicates that they were of meteoric origin. The ancient Hittites of Asia Minor (today’s Turkey) were the first to smelt iron from its ores around 1500 BCE. The ‘Iron Age’ had begun at that time. The first person to explain the various types of iron was René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur who wrote a book on the subject in 1722. This explained how steel, wrought iron, and cast iron, were to be distinguished by the amount of charcoal (carbon) they contained. The...