Executives and Effectiveness...

Executives and Effectiveness It is not generally enough for an executive to be intelligent, to work hard or to be knowledgeable for being effective. Effectiveness is something which is different and distinct. But to be effective, the executive does not need special assistances, aptitude, or training. He is required to do certain and fairly simple things. These simple things consist of a few practices which are not inherited. These things are required to be learned. After learning, these things are to be practiced until they become habits. The executive, who works for becoming an effective executive, always succeeds in doing so. Effectiveness can be learned and for an executive to be effective it is necessary that he learns effectiveness. Effectiveness is what executives always need for their performance at work. Without effectiveness there is no performance, no matter how much intelligence and knowledge goes into the work, no matter how many hours it takes. Yet it is perhaps very surprising that very little attention is paid by executives towards effectiveness. In the present day environment, an executive is expected to spend all of his working life in an organization of some kind. His effectiveness depends increasingly on his ability to be effective in the organization, to be effective as an executive and to have abilities to perform. Perhaps even his ability to survive in the organization increasingly depends on how effective executive he is for the organization. As a matter of fact, effectiveness for an executive is a key requirement for his individual achievements and accomplishments. It is the prime requirement for him to carry out his job efficiently. Since he is expected first of all to get the right things done, which simply means that he is expected to be effective. But usually...

Endless Rolling of Bars and Rods Sep17

Endless Rolling of Bars and Rods...

Endless Rolling of Bars and Rods Endless rolling technology is the most advanced process method for the rolling of the bars and rods (also known as long products) from the billets. It consists of a welding arrangement designed to endlessly join billets together in order to provide a continuous supply of material to the rolling mill train. It is enabled by welding of the billets which come from a reheating furnace at the upstream side of the stands of rolling mill train. In fact, the joining of the tail end of the billet being rolled and the head end of the billet to be rolled is one of the key aspects of the endless rolling technology. Although endless rolling has been in commercial operation since the late 1990s but it took a long time to reach certain level of technical maturity. The major reasons for this are (i) difficulty in the development of the welding technology of hot billets of a large cross-section area in a short time, (ii) achievement of the high joint quality which is needed to improve yield, (iii) difficulty in the development of the technology for the complete and smooth deburring of the welded joint in a short time to avoid any surface defects as well as to avoid the deformation of the billets, and (iv) to achieve the difference between the quality of the welded joint with the rest of the billet within the acceptable limits as this limits the product range of the rolling mill since the joint during the rolling process is rolled out to long length, and reduces uniformity of chemical composition, and the mechanical stability of the finished rolled product. Endless rolling concept Endless rolling process concept has led to a change in the overall...

Anthracite Coal

Anthracite Coal Anthracite coal derives its name from the Greek word ‘anthrakít?s’, literally meaning ‘coal-like’.  It is frequently being referred as hard coal and is one of the four types of coals. Other types of coals are lignite coal, sub- bituminous coal and bituminous coal. Since anthracite coal had been subjected to the intense pressure and heat, it is the most compressed and hardest coal available. Being a hard coal, it contains greater potential to produce heat energy than softer, geologically ‘newer’ coal. As per ISO 11760:2005, anthracite coal is defined as the coal, synonymous with high-rank coal, having a mean random vitrinite reflectance, equal to or greater than 2.0 % but less than 6.0 %, or, preferably, a mean maximum reflectance, , less than 8.0 % for geologically unaltered coal. Geology and mining of anthracite coal Anthracite coal was formed from bituminous coal when great pressures had developed in the folded rock. Transformation of the bituminous coal into anthracite is called ‘Anthracitization’. It was formed during the Carboniferous Age, when the dense green vegetation that thrived during the tropical climate of the time fossilized. It is the oldest and cleanest type of coal. It is the rarest and most mature coal. It is a hard, compact variety of coal. It has the highest ranking amongst all the four types of coals. It has undergone the most metamorphosis. It has the highest fixed carbon content and the least impurities. It has the highest energy density amongst all types of coal. The formation of anthracite coal is shown in Fig 1. Fig 1 Formation of anthracite coal Anthracite coal normally occurs in old geological formations which have spent the longest time underground. It is the rarest and most mature coal which accounts for only around 1 % of the world’s total coal reserves. The major reserves of the anthracite coal are...

Effective Decisions

Effective Decisions Making a decision is comparable to giving a verdict. It is a choice between different alternatives. It is seldom a choice between wrong and right. It is mostly a choice between ‘almost right’ and ‘perhaps wrong’. It is very often a choice between two courses of action neither of which can be considered more correct than the other. Most of the literature on decision making advises that the decision maker is to find the facts first. But it is also a point that management executives who make effective decisions are aware that one does not start with facts. Instead, they start with opinions. These opinions are, naturally, nothing but untested suppositions and, hence, worthless unless tested against reality. To determine what is a fact, requires first a decision on the criteria of relevance, especially on the suitable measurement. This is the core of the effective decision, and usually it is the most controversial aspect. Further, most of the literature on decision making states that the effective decisions flow from a consensus on the facts. To the contrary, the understanding which underlies the right decision grows out of the clash and conflict of divergent opinions and out of the serious consideration of competing alternatives. To obtain the facts first is impossible. There are no facts unless one has a norm of relevance. Events by themselves are not facts. As an example, the taste or colour of a substance is not a fact in physics, while in cooking the taste is a fact of highest importance, and in painting, the colour matters the most. Physics, cooking, and painting consider different things as relevant and therefore consider different things to be facts. Executive, who is making effective decisions, also knows that people do not start...

Energiron Direct Reduction Technology Sep08

Energiron Direct Reduction Technology...

Energiron Direct Reduction Technology Energiron direct reduction technology is a gas based direct reduction technology. Energiron process converts iron ore pellets or lumps into metallic iron. It uses the HYL direct reduction technology developed jointly by Tenova and Danieli and is a competitive and environmentally clean solution for lowering the liquid steel production cost. It uses a simple plant configuration, has flexibility for using different sources of reducing gases and has a very efficient and flexible use of iron ores. A key factor in many of the process advantages is directly related to its pressurized operation. Energiron is the name of the direct reduced iron (DRI) product produced by the Energiron direct reduction technology. The product is so named since it carries substantial energy with it which is realized during the steel making process. Energiron is a highly metallized product with the carbon (C) content which is controllable in the range of 1.5 % to 5.0 %. The higher C content of Energiron generates chemical energy in the electric arc furnace (EAF) melting process. The uniquely stable characteristic of Energiron DRI makes it a product which can be safely and easily transported without briquetting, following standard IMO (International Maritime Organization) guidelines. The process is flexible to produce three different product forms, depending on the specific requirements of each user. The three forms of Energiron DRI are cold DRI, HBI (hot briquetted iron) or hot DRI (‘Hytemp’ iron with discharge temperature greater than 700 deg C). Cold DRI discharge is normally used in an adjacent steel melt shop close to the direct reduction plant. It can also be shipped and exported. HBI is the DRI which is discharged hot, briquetted, and then cooled. It is a merchant product usually meant for overseas export. Hytemp Energiron...