Natural gas and its Usage in Iron and Steel Industry...

Natural gas and its Usage in Iron and Steel Industry Natural gas (NG) is an environmentally friendly non-renewable gaseous fossil fuel which is extracted from deposits in the earth. It is a clean and green fuel with a high efficiency and plays a major role in helping many industries cut emissions and improve the overall air quality. It is normally supplied as (i) piped natural gas (PNG), (ii) compressed natural gas (CNG), and (iii) liquefied natural gas (LNG). Natural gas is a mixture of hydro-carbons consisting primarily of methane (CH4), generally in a percentage of over 85 % by volume. Other hydro-carbons in NG include varying amounts of various higher alkanes such as ethane, propane, and butane etc. It also contains water vapour (H2O) at varying degrees of saturation, or condensed water. It may also contain some small percentage of nitrogen (N2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and helium (He) etc. NG burns with a clean blue luminous flame when mixed with the requisite amount of air and ignited. It is considered one of the cleanest burning fuels. On burning, it produces primarily heat, CO2, and water vapour. NG is a fuel found in deposits in its gas phase. It is colourless and odourless, non-toxic, and lighter than air. It does not contain olefins (hydrocarbons produced during the process of destructive distillation or reforming). It is a highly flammable and combustible gas. Its CAS number is 8006-14-2 and UN number is 1971. Quantities of natural gas are measured in normal cubic meters (corresponding to 0 deg C and 1 atmosphere pressure) or standard cubic feet (corresponding to 16 deg C and 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute pressure). The higher heat value of one cubic meter of natural gas varies from around 9500...

Dissecting of the Organization and Management Functions...

Dissecting of the Organization and Management Functions An organization is a corporate enterprise which is created by people and managed by people. Various types of forces act upon it. Economic forces set limits for the management for achievements. They create opportunities for management for the action. But these forces do not by themselves determine the nature of the organization and what it has to do. Management does not adapt the organization to the forces of the market. On the contrary it has to find these forces and has to create them. It requires enormous efforts on the part of the management and a huge time to bring changes in the basic nature of the organization for ensuring its growth and success. In fact, how the management makes decisions determines whether the organization is going to continue to prosper or to decline, to survive or eventually to perish. And this is true for successive managements of the organization. Profit and profitability are crucial for the organization. Profitability is not the purpose of but a limiting factor on the organizational activities. Profit is not the explanation, cause, or rationale of the organizational behaviour and decisions, but the test of their validity. All the persons who occupy the directors’ chairs are to be concerned with profitability. The first test of any organization is not the maximization of profit but the achievement of sufficient profit to cover the risks of economic activity and thus to avoid loss. Further, there is the prevailing belief that there is an inherent contradiction between profit and the organization’s ability to make a social contribution. Actually, an organization can make a social contribution only if it is highly profitable. To put it crudely, a bankrupt organization is not likely to be a good...

Understanding Pulverized Coal Injection in Blast Furnace Oct21

Understanding Pulverized Coal Injection in Blast Furnace...

Understanding Pulverized Coal Injection in Blast Furnace Pulverized coal injection (PCI) is a well-established technology for hot metal (HM) production in a blast furnace (BF). It is practiced in most of the BFs and all the new BFs are normally built with PCI capability. The composition and properties of the coal used for injection can influence the operation, stability and productivity of the BF, the quality of the HM, and the composition of the BF gas. The coals being used for the PCI are described in the article under link ‘http://ispatguru.com/coal-for-pulverized-coal-injection-in-blast-furnace/’. The critical aspects of PCI systems include coal preparation, its storage and distribution to ensure uniform feed of coal to each tuyere without fluctuations in the coal delivery rate and its combustion through lance design and oxygen (O2) injection. Coal preparation Pulverization of coal is carried out in a single or multiple grinding mills (pulverizers) depending on the requirements. Grinding and distribution of the coal to the injection lances constitute a major operating cost. Coal reclaimed from coal storage is screened for the removal of the foreign material and any large lump of coal is crushed. The coal is then fed into the mill where it is pulverized and dried. Coal of the required size is transported out of the mill by the hot gas stream, collected in a bag filter and conveyed to the storage bins. Grinding and transport are carried out under an inert atmosphere to minimize the risk of ignition of the dry coal particles. The resultant particle size distribution of the pulverized coal affects it handleability in pneumatic transport equipment and, at high injection rates, its combustibility. Pulverizers grind coal to one of the two size fractions namely (i) pulverized coal where around 70 % to 80 % of...

Thermal Coal

Thermal Coal Thermal coal is a type of bituminous coal which is used to provide heat energy in combustion in various types of furnaces via the pulverized fuel method because of its high calorific value (CV). It is also sometimes called as non-coking coal, steam coal, or boiler coal. It includes all those bituminous coals which are not included under coking coal category. It is characterized by higher volatile matter (VM) than anthracite (more than 10 %) and lower carbon (C) content (less than 90 % fixed C). Its gross CV is greater than 5700 kcal/kg on an ash?free but moist basis. The greatest use of thermal coal is for the generation of steam in the boilers for the purpose of generation of electricity. Thermal coal is also used in some of the processes for ironmaking especially in the production of direct reduced iron (DRI) and in the smelting reduction processes for the production of hot metal (HM). Thermal coal is a complex heterogeneous substance. Hence, it has no fixed chemical formula. Its characteristics and hence its CV vary widely. Thermal coals like other coals also contain carbon (C), oxygen (O2), and hydrogen (H2). The other constituents in thermal coals include sulphur (S), nitrogen (N2), ash, chlorine (Cl), and sodium (Na). The quality of thermal of coals is based on the amount of C, O2, and H2 present in coal. The metallic elements in the thermal coal contribute to the coal ash. The chemical structure of the organic molecules of the thermal coal is very complex and is dependent on the rank of the coal. It varies from one coal to another coal. Typical structure of thermal coal is given in Fig 1. Fig 1 Typical structure of thermal coal The performance of the...

Strategic Planning and the Organization...

Strategic Planning and the Organization Organizational management is to plan for the future for the effective functioning of the organization. For this both the short range and the long range planning is needed (Fig 1). The idea of long range planning for the organization is rather new and was practically unknown several decades ago, but presently it is being done in most of the organizations. These days, there is hardly an organization which does not have an elaborate long range plans. Fig 1 Future planning for the organization It is rather necessary that each of the basic management decision is to be a long range decision. These days for an organization, especially in a large organization, ten years is considered to be short time span. Whether concerned with building new capacities or for introducing a new product in the market, or reorganizing the internal set up of the organization for its effective functioning, implementation of every major management decision takes years before it is really effective. And it has to be productive for years thereafter to pay off the investment made in men and money. Hence, the organizational management requires skills in making decisions with long futurity on a systematic basis. Management has no choice but to anticipate the future, to attempt to mould it, and to balance short range objectives with the long range objectives. Though looking into the future is not an easy job, yet the management is to ensure that these difficult responsibilities are not overlooked or neglected but are taken care off as well as it is to ensure that it is realistically possible. The future does not just materialize even if the management has very strong desires for it. The strong desires are not enough. The future needs decisions...