ULCORED Process Mar18

ULCORED Process

ULCORED Process ULCORED is a direct reduction (DR) process, which produces DRI (direct reduced iron) in a shaft furnace, either from natural gas (NG) or from reducing gas obtained by gasification of coal. Off-gas from the shaft is recycled into the process after carbon di-oxide (CO2) has been captured, which leaves the DR plant in a concentrated stream and goes to storage. The DRI step produces a solid product which is then melted using an electric arc furnace (EAF). The process was designed mainly in 2006 by a team led by LKAB, Voest-alpine and MEFOS. The objective of the ULCORED process was to reduce the NG consumption needed to produce DRI. It was achieved by replacing traditional reforming technology with partial oxidation (POx) of NG. Combined with CCS device, ULCORED can reduce 70 % CO2 emission compared with the average in the BF route. The concept of the ULCORED process involves separating CO2 out of the process gas. It is characterized by an effort to adopt gas based DR process to a minimized emission of green- house gases (GHG), using CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology and at the same time to a minimized use of energy. The process is designed in a way which allows for the extraction and storage of CO2. The process is therefore also dependent on CCS with a similar in-process capture. The process is based on the utilization of a shifter to convert the carbon monoxide (CO) gas from the shaft to hydrogen (H2) together with a CO2 removal unit. This opens up a new innovative evolution of the process concept. The main features of the ULCORED DR process include (i) use of oxygen (O2) instead of air resulting into an off gas of nearly 100 % CO2 which...

Air Pollution and Air Pollutants...

Air Pollution and Air Pollutants Clean air is vital to sustain the delicate balance of life on Earth. However the quality of air can be affected by air pollution. Air pollution occurs when certain gases and particles build up in the atmosphere to such levels that they can cause harm to human health, causing breathing and respiratory problems, and even resulting in premature death, as well as damaging the environment around the world. These gases and solid particles (known as pollutants) tend to come from man-made sources, including the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, petrol or diesel, but can also come from natural sources such as volcanic eruptions and forest fires. Air pollutants are those substances which causes pollution of the atmospheric air. They are those chemical, biological and physical agents which modify the natural characteristics of the atmospheric air. Air pollutants arise both from natural processes (volcanic activities, oceans, and forests etc.) and human activities (fossil fuel combustion, transportation, power plant emissions, or emissions from other industrial processes). Air pollution is the contamination of the indoor or outdoor air by a range of gasses and solid particles which modify its natural characteristics. It occurs when gases, dust particles, fumes (or smoke) or odour are introduced into the atmosphere in a way which makes it harmful to humans, animals and plants. Air pollution is often not visible to the naked eye as the size of the pollutants is smaller than the human eye can detect. They can become visible in some situations for example in the form of sooty smoke, and smog etc. The fact that air pollution cannot be seen does not mean that it does not exist. Air pollution threatens the health of humans and other living beings and...

Importance of Communication in the Organization...

Importance of Communication in the Organization Communication has been derived from the Latin word ‘communis’, meaning to share. It is considered to be the exchange of an information, thought and emotion between individuals of groups. It plays a fundamental role in balancing the objectives of the employees and the organization. It consists of the activity of conveying information. Hence, it requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender’s intent to communicate at the time of communication. Hence, communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The process of communication (Fig 1) is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender. Feedback is critical for effective communication between the sender and the receiver of the message. Organizational communication is one of the important segments of the communication. Fig 1 Process of communication The two most common definitions of communication are (i) communication is sending and receiving of messages by means of symbols and in that context organizational communication is a key element of organizational climate, and (ii) communication is transfer of information from sender to receiver under the condition that the receiver understands the message. Communication is a process which is transactional (i.e., it involves two or more persons interacting within an environment) and symbolic (i.e., communication transactions ‘stand for’ other things, at various levels of abstraction). An organization involves a social collectivity (or a group of persons) in which activities are coordinated in order to achieve both individual and collective goals. By coordinating activities, some degree of organizational structure is created to assist employees in dealing with each other and with others in the...

Top Gas Recycling Blast Furnace Process Mar09

Top Gas Recycling Blast Furnace Process...

Top Gas Recycling Blast Furnace Process In the area of production of hot metal (HM) by blast furnace (BF), the most promising technology to significantly reduce the CO2 (carbon di-oxide) emission is recycling of CO (carbon mono oxide) and H2 (hydrogen) from the gas leaving the BF top. CO and H2 content of the top BF gas has a potential to act as reducing gas elements, and hence their recirculation to the BF is considered as an effective alternative to improve the BF performance, enhance the utilization of C (carbon) and H2, and reduce the emission of CO2. This ‘top gas recycling’ (TGR) technology is mainly based on lowering the usage of fossil C (coke and coal) with the re-usage of the reducing agents (CO and H2), after the removal of the CO2 from the top BF gas. This leads to lower the energy requirements. Because of the advantages of high productivity, high PCI (pulverized coal injection) rate, low fuel rate, and low CO2 emission etc., the TGR-BF process is considered to be one of the promising ironmaking processes in future. In TGR-BF, oxygen (O2) is blown into the BF instead of hot air to eliminate nitrogen (N2) in the top BF gas. Part of the top BF gas containing CO and H2 is utilized again as the reducing agent in the BF. CO2 from the BF top gas is captured and then stored. Several recycling processes have been suggested, evaluated or practically applied for different objectives. These processes are distinguished by (i) with or without CO2 removal, (ii) with or without preheating, and (iii) the position of injection. The concept of the TGR-BF (Fig 1) involves many technologies which include (i) injection of reducing top BF gas components CO and H2 in the...