Water Pollutants and Water Pollution...

Water Pollutants and Water Pollution Water pollutants refer to the substances which are capable of making any physical, chemical or biological change in the water body. These have undesirable effect on living organisms. Water is called polluted when the water is contaminated with domestic waste and industrial effluents. When this contamination reaches beyond certain allowed concentrations then the water pollution occurs. Water is considered polluted if some substances or condition is present in the water changes it’s physical, chemical, or biological characteristics to such an extent that the water cannot be used for its intended use or for a specific purpose. Pollution affects the quality of water is an adverse way due to the addition of large amounts of unwanted materials to the water. Water pollution occurs due to the presence of excessive amounts of a hazard (pollutants) in water in such a way that it is no long suitable for its intended use. Water pollution has a duel effect on nature. It has harmful effects on the living beings and also on the environment. Water pollution has many sources and characteristics. Pollution to the water environment can come from a wide range of sources. These include agriculture (crops and livestock), atmosphere (acid rain), aquaculture, forestry, illegal dumping of waste, industry, mines, sewage, and urban areas and roads etc. When the polluted water seeps into the ground and enters an aquifer it results into ground water pollution. The pollution of ground water is a matter of serious concern. Ground water gets polluted in a number of ways. The porous layers of soil hold back solid particles while the liquid is allowed to pass through. The soluble pollutants are able to mix with the groundwater. In addition to these, the excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers...

Learning Culture and Organizational Performance...

Learning Culture and Organizational Performance With the current expansion in the global economy and the fast-changing evolution of technology and innovation, organizations are facing an ongoing need for employees’ learning and development. As knowledge becomes increasingly a key factor for productivity, it has also become a currency for the competitive success. The learning culture in the organization contributes to the organizational learning and the transfer of knowledge to the workplace.  Hence, the learning culture has a very important role to play in the performance of the organization. A learning culture moves beyond compliance by encouraging the employees to develop self-correcting mechanisms and internal practices which use knowledge to examine failures and weaknesses to make programmatic and operational changes. Further, a learning culture minimizes barriers to learning and knowledge and rewards and encourages knowledge driven practices, making learning and continuous improvement the rule, not the exception. Fig 1 provides the transition from a compliance culture to learning culture in the organization. Fig 1 Transition from a compliance culture to learning culture in the organization Creating a learning culture within the organisation makes the employees to take one step beyond just acquiring the skills which they need to deliver the products and services. Learning culture empowers the employees to achieve dramatically improved results compared to the organization having no positive learning culture. The learning culture in the organization enhances the ability of the organization to learn, and translate that learning into action rapidly and thus provides the organization the ultimate competitive advantage. It enables the employees to (i) easily adapt to change, (ii) actually anticipate the change, (iii) be more responsive to the market requirements, and (iv) grow through innovation. It also generates more energetic, loyal and goal oriented employees. A learning culture makes an organization...

ULCORED Process Mar18

ULCORED Process

ULCORED Process ULCORED is a direct reduction (DR) process, which produces DRI (direct reduced iron) in a shaft furnace, either from natural gas (NG) or from reducing gas obtained by gasification of coal. Off-gas from the shaft is recycled into the process after carbon di-oxide (CO2) has been captured, which leaves the DR plant in a concentrated stream and goes to storage. The DRI step produces a solid product which is then melted using an electric arc furnace (EAF). The process was designed mainly in 2006 by a team led by LKAB, Voest-alpine and MEFOS. The objective of the ULCORED process was to reduce the NG consumption needed to produce DRI. It was achieved by replacing traditional reforming technology with partial oxidation (POx) of NG. Combined with CCS device, ULCORED can reduce 70 % CO2 emission compared with the average in the BF route. The concept of the ULCORED process involves separating CO2 out of the process gas. It is characterized by an effort to adopt gas based DR process to a minimized emission of green- house gases (GHG), using CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology and at the same time to a minimized use of energy. The process is designed in a way which allows for the extraction and storage of CO2. The process is therefore also dependent on CCS with a similar in-process capture. The process is based on the utilization of a shifter to convert the carbon monoxide (CO) gas from the shaft to hydrogen (H2) together with a CO2 removal unit. This opens up a new innovative evolution of the process concept. The main features of the ULCORED DR process include (i) use of oxygen (O2) instead of air resulting into an off gas of nearly 100 % CO2 which...

Air Pollution and Air Pollutants...

Air Pollution and Air Pollutants Clean air is vital to sustain the delicate balance of life on Earth. However the quality of air can be affected by air pollution. Air pollution occurs when certain gases and particles build up in the atmosphere to such levels that they can cause harm to human health, causing breathing and respiratory problems, and even resulting in premature death, as well as damaging the environment around the world. These gases and solid particles (known as pollutants) tend to come from man-made sources, including the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, petrol or diesel, but can also come from natural sources such as volcanic eruptions and forest fires. Air pollutants are those substances which causes pollution of the atmospheric air. They are those chemical, biological and physical agents which modify the natural characteristics of the atmospheric air. Air pollutants arise both from natural processes (volcanic activities, oceans, and forests etc.) and human activities (fossil fuel combustion, transportation, power plant emissions, or emissions from other industrial processes). Air pollution is the contamination of the indoor or outdoor air by a range of gasses and solid particles which modify its natural characteristics. It occurs when gases, dust particles, fumes (or smoke) or odour are introduced into the atmosphere in a way which makes it harmful to humans, animals and plants. Air pollution is often not visible to the naked eye as the size of the pollutants is smaller than the human eye can detect. They can become visible in some situations for example in the form of sooty smoke, and smog etc. The fact that air pollution cannot be seen does not mean that it does not exist. Air pollution threatens the health of humans and other living beings and...

Importance of Communication in the Organization...

Importance of Communication in the Organization Communication has been derived from the Latin word ‘communis’, meaning to share. It is considered to be the exchange of an information, thought and emotion between individuals of groups. It plays a fundamental role in balancing the objectives of the employees and the organization. It consists of the activity of conveying information. Hence, it requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender’s intent to communicate at the time of communication. Hence, communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The process of communication (Fig 1) is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender. Feedback is critical for effective communication between the sender and the receiver of the message. Organizational communication is one of the important segments of the communication. Fig 1 Process of communication The two most common definitions of communication are (i) communication is sending and receiving of messages by means of symbols and in that context organizational communication is a key element of organizational climate, and (ii) communication is transfer of information from sender to receiver under the condition that the receiver understands the message. Communication is a process which is transactional (i.e., it involves two or more persons interacting within an environment) and symbolic (i.e., communication transactions ‘stand for’ other things, at various levels of abstraction). An organization involves a social collectivity (or a group of persons) in which activities are coordinated in order to achieve both individual and collective goals. By coordinating activities, some degree of organizational structure is created to assist employees in dealing with each other and with others in the...