Comparison of By-product Coke Ovens and Heat Recovery Coke Ovens...

Comparison of By-product Coke Ovens and Heat Recovery Coke Ovens There are three proven processes for the carbonization of coal for the production of metallurgical coke. These are (i) beehive oven process, (ii) the by-product coke oven process, and (ii) the heat recovery coke oven process. The heat recovery coke oven process is also known as non-recovery or energy recovery coke oven process. It is a modification of the beehive oven process and, and hence, it has largely phased out the beehive oven process. Thus, for the carbonization of the metallurgical coal the only two cokemaking technologies which are being used are (i) the by-product coke oven technology, and (ii) heat recovery (HR) coke oven technology. Both of these cokemaking technologies offer opportunities to produce high quality coke and to develop the energy balance while achieving the lowest possible operating cost. The by-product coke ovens are prone to high level of pollution because of the positive pressure maintained in them. The stringent pollution laws and the high cost involved in the installation of pollution control equipment led to the revival of interest in the non-recovery coke oven technology during 1980s and 1990s. These non-recovery coke ovens complied with the stringent pollution control regulations. These non-recovery coke ovens are the heat recovery ovens since they are used not only for the production of coke, but also for the generation of power by means of waste gas heat recovery. Hence, the heat recovery type of coke ovens is energy efficient and environment friendly. The selection of the appropriate technology for a particular situation needs a careful study since many different factors can affect the decision, including, for example, availability of land, plant energy balance and available energy sources and their costs, steel plant configuration and energy...

Qualities of Chief Executive Officer for Organizational Success...

Qualities of Chief Executive Officer for Organizational Success A chief executive officer (CEO) of an organization requires a large number of qualities besides hard work and dedication for the success of the organization which he is heading. The performance of the organization is dependent on the capabilities of the CEO. The job carries with it a large amount of responsibilities. The job of CEO is not a bed of roses. In fact, it is a very tough job and is fundamentally different from any other job in a senior management position. The CEO needs to have the self-discipline to get results. He needs to be charismatic. He is required to have high cognitive ability, conscientiousness/achievement, and extraversion/assertiveness. He needs to have innovative strategies. He is required to forge long-term relationships with customers, innovate, execute, build high-performing teams, ensure accountability, manage people, communicate, engage others, create workforce plans, exercise judgment, have emotional intelligence, and possess an honorable character The CEO needs to have leadership qualities. His integrity is to be unquestionable. He is to be impartial. He is to be modest and endure greatness besides being efficient and flexible. He is to be aggressive but respectful. He is to move fast to fulfill the commitments. He is to be calm under pressure. He is required to treat people with respect. He is to set the example and high standards for others to follow. A CEO is to have a lot of enthusiasm and persistence. He is to be innovative and proactive. He is required to have analytical skills and creative thinking. He needs to have vision and strategic plans. He is to be diligent and systematic.  At the same time he is to pay attention to details. A CEO is to have the habit of...

Carbonization of Coal in Heat Recovery Coke Oven Battery Feb15

Carbonization of Coal in Heat Recovery Coke Oven Battery...

Carbonization of Coal in Heat Recovery Coke Oven Battery One of the present trends in the production of the metallurgical coke is the comeback of non-recovery ovens. The ovens are called non-recovery since the by-products are not recovered and are burnt during the process of coal carbonization. This is driven due to the less interest in by-products, smaller investment per annual ton, and better environmental performance. The development of non-recovery coke ovens took place in 1980s and 1990s. This technology arises from the classic beehive ovens which supplied since the eighteenth century the coke for the industrial revolution. The beehive ovens were manually operated, with small heat recovery, just for heating the oven. Now, non-recovery ovens are modern construction, with highly mechanized operation, and automated to a certain degree. The non-recovery ovens are called heat recovery ovens when the energy of the exit gases is recovered in the form of steam for generation of power. The schematics of the HR coke oven process are shown in Fig 1. Fig 1 Schematics of the process of a heat recovery coke oven The basis for the heat recovery (HR) coke ovens is the so called ‘Jewell-Thomson oven’. These ovens were developed in 1960 when three test ovens were successfully built at Vansant, VA. Several of these ovens are grouped together to form one battery. Gases generated by the combustion of the volatile matter are sent through the down-comers and further burnt to heat the oven bottom and sides. The hot flue gas is used for steam production and power generation. Jewell-Thomson oven is shaped with a rectangular ground area. The oven brick lining is composed of silica refractory material. Coal is charged onto the oven floor at the beginning of the cycle. The carbonization process is...

Coal Tar and its Products...

Coal Tar and its Products Coal tar is a by-product generated during the high temperature carbonizing of coking coal for the production of the metallurgical coke in the by-product coke ovens. It is a black, viscous, sometimes semi-solid, fluid of peculiar smell, which is condensed together with aqueous ‘gas-liquor’ (ammoniacal liquor), when the volatile products of the carbonization of coking coal are cooled down. Its CAS number is 8007-45-2. It is acidic in nature and is water insoluble. Coal tar represents a mixture of condensable volatile products formed during the destructive distillation of bituminous coal. Composition is variable, but generally consists of 0 % to 2 % of light oils (chiefly benzene, toluene, and xylene), 16 % to 18 % of middle oils (chiefly phenols, cresols, and naphthalene), 8 % to 10 % heavy oils (naphthalene and derivatives), 16 % to 20 % anthracene oils, and around 50 % pitch. It is composed primarily of a complex mixture of condensed-ring aromatic hydrocarbons. It can contain phenolic compounds, aromatic nitrogen (N2) bases and their alkyl derivatives, and paraffinic and olefinic hydrocarbons. Coal tar is a complex mixture of chemical compounds, mainly consisting of the aromatic series. Both the method by which the coal tar is produced and the nature of the raw material (coal) influence to a wide extent the chemical composition and physical properties of the coal tar. The specific gravity of coal tar at 15 deg C varies between 1.12 and 1.20, depending upon the temperature of carbonization or kind of coke ovens used. In exceptional cases it can go upto 1.25. The coal tar with lower specific gravity is generally produced when low carbonization temperatures are used. Viscosity of the coal tar is affected in a similar manner. The heavier tars contain...

Management of Diversification...

Management of Diversification Diversification in an organizational can be implemented by (i) grass root development, (ii) acquisition, and (iii) by joint venture. Management of diversification is quite complex and needs special skills. Further the diversification can be misfit, partially fit, or successful as shown in Fig 1 and described subsequently. Fig 1 Management of organizational diversification Management of diversification becomes a misfit, if the management while planning the diversification has ignored market as well as the technology. The diversification is sometimes considered partial fit if it is successful but exceeds the ability of the organization to manage, or if the organization is needed to do something it cannot or should not do. For the management of diversification, it is essential for the organizational management to know what to do if a product which looked like a logical extension of the organizational market turns out not to be accepted in that market, because of the consumer defines the market differently from the way the producer does. Management is  required to know what to do with developments which come out of organizational operations or technology but do not fit into a frame of common understanding. The development may be too promising to be given up. Yet to try to fit it within organization’s operational structure is likely to create splintering and to diffuse. Managing diversification needs that the management knows what to do in case the organizational operation finds that its technology branching increasingly into different directions which have lesser and lesser in common with one another. Sometimes it is the most successful new development which turns out to go out of bounds and to threaten, by its very success, to make the whole organization unmanageable. Every management wants to hold on to the misfit of...