HYL Process for Direct Reduction of Iron Ore Apr22

HYL Process for Direct Reduction of Iron Ore...

HYL Process for Direct Reduction of Iron Ore HYL process is designed for the conversion of iron ore (pellet/lump ore) into metallic iron, by the use of reducing gases in a solid-gas moving bed reactor. Oxygen (O2) is removed from the iron ore by chemical reactions based on hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) for the production of highly metallized direct reduced iron (DRI)/hot briquetted iron (HBI). HYL process is presently marketed under ‘Energiron’ trademark. HYL process for direct reduction of iron ore was the fruition of research efforts begun by Hojalata y L.mina, S.A. (later known as Hylsa), at the beginning of the 1950s. After the initial evaluation of the concept, it was decided to install a process using a tunnel furnace and several runs were undertaken. The first batch was made by using an ancient furnace (which had been built to heat plate) on the 5th of July, 1950. One part of crushed ore of size ranging from 12 mm to 25 mm was mixed with 40 % coke breeze and 15 % limestone of the same granulometry as the ore. This mixture was put into clay crucibles and into 2 iron pipes, each one with a diameter of 100 mm and a length of 1 meter. 20 kg of good quality of DRI was produced. The first gas based plant, with a design capacity of 50 tons per day, was unable to reach acceptable levels of metallization. During the 18 months of its operation, it underwent several changes, including the installation of a natural gas reformer with the object of improving the reducing gas. Finally, its operation was suspended during early 1955. After this discouraging attempt, several experiments were carried out and a pilot plant was assembled to put the new...

Tender Technical Specification and its Contents...

Tender Technical Specification and its Contents Tender documents are prepared for the purpose of procuring materials, production unit, services, or site activities. They are used for calling the bids. A tender document (Fig 1) usually consists of three parts, namely (i) notice inviting tender, (ii) commercial specification, and (iii) technical specification. Fig 1 Components of tender document Technical specification is that part of the tender documents which provides to the bidder technical details of the materials, plant and equipment, services, or site activities which the bidder is to supply if he becomes a successful bidder. In case a plant unit is to be procured, then the technical specification is very complex since all the four types of procurements get combined into one specification. Technical specification becomes contract technical specification after incorporating the changes agreed with the bidder during the tender negotiations. The technical specification is the most important section of the tender document, both for the purchasing organization as well as for the bidders, since it is the specification which sets out precisely what characteristics are required from the materials, plant and equipment, services, or site activities being sought by the purchasing organization. Technical specification is a comprehensive document which clearly, accurately and completely describes in detail what the purchasing organization wants successful bidder to supply. A clear, accurate and complete specification is the foundation of any purchase, and ensures the best chance of getting what the purchasing organization wants. Whether the purchase is for a small simple item, or a large complex plant, or the activities to be performed at the construction site, the technical specification needs to clearly outline the requirements to the bidder. Technical specification has five mandatory requirements mainly (i) title of the specification, (ii) scope, (iii) statement of requirements, (iv) requirement for...

Steel Project and Phases in its life cycle...

Steel Project and Phases in its life cycle Steel project consists of activities through which a steel plant is conceptualize, designed, constructed and handed over for operation for the production of steel products. Steel project being a large scale in nature requires considerable time period as well as funds for its execution. Further, steel project is normally driven by the triple constraints which represent the balance of time, resources (human and otherwise), and technical performance (quality). Every steel project is unique in nature. This is because one steel project differs from other steel project with respect to its composition and the nature of the triple constraints. Also, steel project does not involve repetitive processes which are very common with the operation of the steel plant. Time scale of a steel project is well defined and it has a clear specified start and end date within which the project is to be completed and handed over for its operations. Steel project has an approved budget and the project is required to be completed within the allocated level of financial resources. Other resources needed for the project execution such as equipment and materials as well as human resources are also usually limited. Steel project also involves an element of risk. It has to overcome several uncertainties as it moves forward during its execution. Many of these uncertainties are caused by external factors and cannot be foreseen. The uncertainties generally result into disruption in the process of project planning as well as in the execution of the project. Every steel project has a life cycle. It starts with the initiation of the project and ends with the handing over of the plant for operation. There are some of the project activities, which extend beyond the handing over...

Midrex Process for Direct Reduction of Iron Ore Apr09

Midrex Process for Direct Reduction of Iron Ore...

Midrex Process for Direct Reduction of Iron Ore Midrex is an ironmaking process, developed for the production of direct reduced iron (DRI). It is a gas-based shaft furnace process is a solid state reduction process which reduces iron ore pellets or lump ore into DRI without their melting using reducing gas generally formed from natural gas. The principle of the reduction process using reducing gas is shown in Fig 1. Fig 1 Principle of reduction process using reducing gas The history of the Midrex process goes back to 1966 when Donald Beggs of the Surface Combustion Corporation conceives the idea for the Midrex direct reduction process.  The original process was developed by the Midland-Ross Co., which later became Midrex Technologies, Inc. It is now a wholly owned subsidiary of Kobe Steel. A pilot plant was built in Toledo, Ohio in 1967. The first commercial plant, having a production capacity of 150,000 tons per year, was built in Portland, Oregon, in 1969. The genius of the Midrex process is its simplicity. Donald Beggs’ concept of combining stoichiometric natural gas reforming with shaft furnace direct reduction of iron ore was a breakthrough innovation which has stood the test of time. Since 1969, DRI production through Midrex process has crossed 500 million tons. Production from many of the Midrex plants exceeds their design capacity. Each year since 1987, DRI production through Midrex process is over 60 % of the total global production of DRI. The process was immature in 1978, when Kobe Steel began the construction of a plant with a production capacity of 400,000 tons/year in the State of Qatar. Kobe Steel significantly modified the design, exploiting the company’s technologies developed through blast furnace operation, and stabilized the then new process. On the other hand, Midrex...