Synthetic Slag for Secondary Steelmaking...

Synthetic Slag for Secondary Steelmaking Synthetic slag consists of prepared mixture of several individual oxides which is used during secondary steelmaking to assist the steel treatment in the ladle from the viewpoint of effective refinement. Synthetic slag practice is normally used to obtain clean steels and also for the desulphurization of the liquid steel. Secondary steelmaking is a critical quality control step between the primary steelmaking and the continuous casting of the liquid steel. A key feature for success with the secondary steelmaking processes is the slag control. Use of synthetic slag which is specifically designed to have the required chemical composition and physical properties helps in the slag control. The  desirable properties of the synthetic slag include (i) slag is to have high sulphide capacity, (ii) it is to be basic in nature, (iii) it is to be fluid to obtain faster reaction rates, and (iv) it is not to cause excessive refractory wear. The secondary steelmaking slag is in liquid form in the ladle and floats on the surface of liquid steel which is usually at temperature of 1,600 deg or higher. It acts like a sponge to absorb the impurities consisting mainly of sulphur and non-metallic inclusions. The design of the slag is a critical step impacting the efficiency of the steel refining processes during the secondary steelmaking. Slag regime in secondary steelmaking significantly influences the final quality of the produced steel, particularly with respect to the achieved desulphurization of steel. One of the possibilities for influencing the slag regime is the application of synthetic slags to the ladle slag, formed from slag-making additions during the liquid steel tapping. Synthetic slag practice during secondary steelmaking maximizes the efficiency of the steel refining process by (i) improving steel quality, (ii) improving productivity,...

Project Planning in a Steel Project...

Project Planning in a Steel Project A steel project is a series of activities which takes place over a pre-arranged period of time to achieve a specified aim of commissioning of the project. The activities of steel project are usually one time activities which are not to be repeated in near future. Steel project activities differ from plant operation which consists mostly of routine activities. For achieving the specified aim, it is essential that project activities are properly and systematically planned. Project planning is done to increase the likelihood that the project will be implemented efficiently, effectively and successfully. Also, it is very much necessary that required time, resources, and efforts are provided as well used for the preparation of the project plan since a defective plan can lead the project to a situation which becomes out of control of the project team. A project plan is a formal, approved document of the project which guides the project execution and is required for the management and control of the project. It forms the basis for all the actions which are required to be taken by the project team for the implementation of the project. The planning document is not of permanent nature since it is necessary to continuously update it as the work of the project progresses. Project planning is important since (i) it guides the project team in its activities, (ii) it helps the project team to remain on track while progressing on work, (iii) It helps in focused monitoring of the work progress, (iv) it helps in the effective use of the resources, and (v) it creates confidence in everyone connected with the project that the project team by following the plans is on right course towards achievement of the results. The...

Direct Iron Ore Smelting Process for Ironmaking Mar28

Direct Iron Ore Smelting Process for Ironmaking...

Direct Iron Ore Smelting Process for Ironmaking Direct iron ore smelting (DIOS) process is a smelting reduction process for the production of hot metal (liquid iron). It is a two-stage process which has been developed in Japan. It uses non-coking coal in a powder or granular form to smelt iron ore fines into liquid iron (hot metal) and hence, there is no necessity of a coke ovens plant and a sintering plant. The ore fines are pre-reduced in a fluidized bed furnace and are charged in the smelting reduction furnace along with non-coking coal and fluxes. Oxygen is blown into the smelting reduction furnace. The two stages of the DIOS process consists of (i) pre reduction of iron ore in preliminary reduction furnace (PRF), and (ii) the final reduction and melting in the smelting reduction furnace (SRF). The pre reduction of the ore is carried out in two steps utilizing the exhaust gas from the SRF. Each of the steps uses a fluidized bed reactor which is designed as a vertical furnace. The development of the DIOS process started in 1988 in Japan as a joint research project among eight iron manufacturing companies who had, prior to 1988, been studying the smelting-reduction process individually. This project was sponsored by MITI, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry. Japanese companies and Japan Iron and Steel Federation (JISF) actively supported the development of the process during the period of 1988 to 1996. Core technology study necessary for the construction of the pilot plant was done during the period 1988 to 1990. During this period core technologies were established. These core technologies include (i) an increase in the thermal efficiency of a SRF, (ii) the technology to be integrated with a PRF, (iii) the technology for...

Detailed Feasibility Report and its Preparation in Steel Sector...

Detailed Feasibility Report and its Preparation in Steel Sector A feasibility study aims to objectively and rationally uncover the strengths and weaknesses of a proposed project, opportunities and threats present in the environment, the resources needed to carry through, and ultimately the prospects for success. In its simplest terms, the two criteria to judge feasibility are cost needed and the value to be attained. A well-designed feasibility study provides a background for the project, a description of the project, accounting statements, technical details, and financial data. Generally, feasibility study includes technical development and project implementation. It evaluates the project’s potential for success and hence, perceived objectivity is an important factor in the credibility of the feasibility study for potential investors and lending institutions. It is necessary, therefore, that the feasibility study is conducted with an objective, unbiased approach to provide information upon which decisions can be based. Feasibility report is a base document for a steel project for the decision making with respect to investment in the project. Depending of the stage of the project, when the feasibility report is made, it is known as pre-feasibility report (PFR), feasibility report (FR), or detailed feasibility report (DFR). It is obvious that DFR is more accurate than FR both in technical aspect or financial analysis aspect. PFR study is a preliminary study undertaken to determine, analyze, and select the best alternative among several alternatives, both technically and financially. It is difficult and it takes time if each of the alternatives is studied deeply. Hence, shortcut method deems acceptable in the early stage is used to determine minor components of investment and production cost. If the selected alternative is considered feasible, then normally the study at the FR or DFR is taken up to get deeper analysis of the selected project scenario. Technically...

Project Monitoring

Project Monitoring Project monitoring is an integral part of the project management. It provides understanding of the progress of the project so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken when the performance deviates significantly from the planned path. It consists of regular systematic collection and analysis of information to track the progress of the project implementation against pre-set targets and objectives. It is an important management tool which, if used properly, provides continuous feedback on the project implementation progress as well assists in the identification of potential successes and constraints to facilitate timely decisions. Effective monitoring of the project is a critical element of good project management. It supports informed and timely decision making by the management and provides accountability for achieving results. It is a key part of project cycle management. It is to be built into the project at the planning stage. It is not an ‘add on’ tool which can be used during mid-way of the project implementation. On the other hand, it is to be woven throughout the project. Project monitoring clarifies project objectives, links activities and their resources to objectives, translates objectives into performance indicators and sets targets, routinely collects data on these indicators, compares actual results with targets, and reports progress to the management and alerts the management about the problems which frequently gets cropped up during the implementation of the project. It provides information to the management whether the project is proceeding as per schedule relative to the targets or there is time over run in the project implementation. It also focuses, in particular, on the efficiency and the use of resources during the project implementation. It provides support to the management in its efforts to complete the project in time and within the budget. Project monitoring...