Iron and Types of Iron...

Iron and Types of Iron Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin word Ferrum). Its atomic number is 26 and atomic mass is 55.85. It has a melting point of 1538 deg C and boiling point of 2862 deg C. The density of iron is 7.87 grams/cu cm. It is a metal in the first transition series. Like the elements of other group 8 elements (ruthenium and osmium), iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, ?2 to +6, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Iron as a common metal is mostly confused with other metals such as different types of steels. Iron is by mass the most common element on the earth, forming much of earth’s outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element and the second most common metal in the earth crust. Steels contain over 95 % Fe. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust. Unlike the metals which form passivating oxide layers, iron oxides occupy more volume than the metal and thus flake off, exposing fresh surfaces for corrosion. Iron objects have been found in Egypt dating from around 3500 BCE (Before Common Era). They contain around 7.5 % nickel, which indicates that they were of meteoric origin. The ancient Hittites of Asia Minor (today’s Turkey) were the first to smelt iron from its ores around 1500 BCE. The ‘Iron Age’ had begun at that time. The first person to explain the various types of iron was René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur who wrote a book on the subject in 1722. This explained how steel, wrought iron, and cast iron, were to be distinguished by the amount of charcoal (carbon) they contained. The...

Project Management in for a Steel Project...

Project Management in for a Steel Project Project consists of a group of tasks, performed in a definable time period, in order to meet a specific set of objectives. It is a temporary activity. It is a one-time program hence different from operations where tasks are repeated in a routine way. Every project has a life cycle, with a specific start and end. The work scope of a project can be categorized into definable tasks. Project has a budget within which it is required to be completed. During the execution of the project, there is likely requirement of multiple resources. Many of these resources can be scarce and may have to be shared with others. Steel project like any other project has a life cycle (Fig 1) which includes (i) initiation, (ii) planning, (iii) execution, (iv) monitoring and control, (v) commissioning and handing over, and (vi) closing of the project activities. Fig 1 Project life cycle Steel project has four components namely (i) performance, (ii) cost, (iii) time, and (iv) scope. All these four components are interrelated and dependent on each other. Performance is the quality of the work being done. Cost is the expenditure made on the project work and is directly related to the human and physical resources applied. Time is the schedule which is required to be met for completing the work. Scope is the magnitude of the work to be performed. One of the key ingredients for successful project management in a steel project is having the right people on the job and managing them appropriately. Both of the two elements ‘having the right people’ and ‘managing people appropriately’ are important for the project success. However, in practice both conditions are frequently violated. There are several groups of activities in...

Corex Process for Production of Iron Feb22

Corex Process for Production of Iron...

Corex Process for Production of Iron During the late twentieth century, several new initiatives have been taken for the development of the smelting reduction technology which can become alternative route for the production of liquid iron (hot metal) since the conventional blast furnace (BF) ironmaking depends on metallurgical coal, which is required for producing BF coke needed for the production of hot metal in the blast furnace. Metallurgical coal is not only costly but is associated with environmental issues during its conversion to BF coke in the coke oven batteries. Smelting reduction process is that process which is based on smelting reduction technology and hence in this process the production of hot metal is carried out without the use of metallurgical coke. Corex process is one of these initiatives. It is the first and the only commercially established smelting-reduction process based on non-coking coal which is available as an alternative route to the blast furnace for the production of hot metal. Corex process was developed by the Austrian technology supplier VOEST in the late 1970s, and its feasibility was confirmed during the 1980s. The first pilot plant was installed in Kehl, Germany, in 1981. Commercialization, however, was reached together with the South African steelmaker ISCOR where the C-1000 (C – 0.5 M) module was commissioned in November 1989 at its Pretoria works. This first generation reactor which is called melter-gasifier had a hearth diameter of 5.5 m and a hot metal production rate ranging from 40 tons per hour to 60 tons per hour. The plant rated capacity was 300,000 metric tons per year. The general applicability of this first generation process was limited and a lot of technical problems had to be solved. Nevertheless, it helped to overcome the critical demonstration stage for...

Non Coking Coal for Iron Production...

Non Coking Coal for Iron Production A non-coking coal is that coal which when heated in the absence of air leaves a coherent residue. This residue does not possess the physical and chemical properties of the coke and is not suitable for the manufacture of coke. Non coking coal like any other coal is an organic rock (as opposed to most other rocks in the earth’s crust, such as clays and sandstone, which are inorganic). It contains mostly carbon (C), but it also has hydrogen (H2), oxygen (O2), sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N2), as well as some inorganic constituents which are known as ash (minerals) and water (H2O). Coal was formed from prehistoric plants, in marshy environments, some tens or hundreds of millions of years ago. The presence of water restricted the supply of oxygen and allowed thermal and bacterial decomposition of plant material to take place, instead of the completion of the carbon cycle. Under these conditions of anaerobic decay, in the so-called biochemical stage of coal formation, a carbon-rich material called ‘peat’ was formed. In the subsequent geochemical stage, the different time-temperature histories led to the formations of coal of widely differing properties. These formations of coal are lignite (65 % to 72 % carbon), sub-bituminous coal (72 % to 76 % carbon), bituminous coal (76 % to 90 % carbon), and anthracite (90 % to 95 %) carbon. The degree of change undergone by a coal as it matures from peat to anthracite is known as coalification. Coalification has an important bearing on the physical and chemical properties of coal and is referred to as the ‘rank’ of the coal. Ranking is determined by the degree of transformation of the original plant material to carbon. The ranks of coals, from those with...

Estimation of Project Cost for a Green Field Steel Project...

Estimation of Project Cost for a Green Field Steel Project Estimation of the project cost for a green field steel project is essential for ensuring that the available resources for the project are used effectively and wisely. The basic requirements of the project cost estimates are that these estimates are to be prepared on an ‘unlikely to be exceeded but not excessively conservative’ basis for various stages of the project life cycle to provide confidence in project priority, affordability and strategic fit. An accurate estimate goes a long way toward supporting a successful project. Quality cost estimates are also necessary in maintaining stakeholders’ confidence and trust throughout the life of the project. Hence, cost estimates are to reflect an overall accuracy which is indicative of the level of information available at the time the estimates are being developed. Cost increases over and above project budget are a constant concern of the stakeholders and the senior management. Reliable cost estimates are necessary for responsible financial management at every stage of the project. Unreliable cost estimates cause significant problems during the project implementation. Unreliable cost estimates can also lead to staffing and budgeting decisions which can result into incorrect and inefficient use of the available resources. The ‘project cost estimate’, as used during the project development process, includes all capital outlay costs, including right-of-way, structures and landscaping. Project cost estimates are never to be artificially reduced to stay within the funding limits, nor they are to be reduced for the purpose of making the funds available for the project. Likewise, project cost estimates are not to be artificially raised beyond the contingency percentages necessary for the project unless the increase is adequately justified. Project cost estimates are prepared for a planned project implementation schedule. Any delay...