Defects in Thermo Mechanical Processing of Metals...

Defects in Thermo Mechanical Processing of Metals  Thermo mechanical processing of materials is a technique designed to improve the mechanical properties by controlling the hot-deformation process. This was originally designed to produce the required external shape of the product. Controlled rolling, controlled-cooling and direct-quenching are typical examples of thermo mechanical processing. Such processing saves energy in the manufacture of steel by minimizing or even eliminating the heat treatment after hot-deformation, thus increasing the productivity for high grade steels. It normally requires a change in alloy design and often reduces the productivity of the hot deformation process itself, but at the same time makes it possible to reduce the total amount of alloying additions and to improve weldability, while sometimes producing new and beneficial characteristics in the steel. Thermo mechanical processing is the sophisticated combination of well-defined deformation operations and well-defined heat treatment in a single production stage to control the microstructure of the material being formed. It produces materials with the desired external qualities (dimensions, shape and surface quality) and acceptable mechanical properties. The process is normally considered as the final stage in the production of steels. Thermo mechanical process defects are usually focused on individual forming technique. The defects generally range from mostly macroscopic ‘form and fracture’ related defects to defects related to strain localizations, as well as imperfections related to microstructure.  The defects in case of thermo mechanical processing have two possible origins namely (i) process related, and/or (ii) metallurgical. The first one is usually related fully to the practices of the thermo mechanical processes including the forming techniques and the heat treatment, while the metallurgical origin defects can range from the starting solidification structure to structural developments during thermo mechanical process. It is difficult to establish a clear demarcation between the...

Employee Morale

Employee Morale Employee morale plays a vital role in the performance of the organization. Morale can be considered as the total satisfaction that the employees of the organization derive from their job, the prevailing atmosphere and the factors that appeal to them. It is a conglomeration of attitudes and feelings that constitute a reserve of physical and mental strength including factors like self-confidence, optimism and a positive mental attitude. Morale is an invisible element which determines the success or failure of the organization. Morale is a way of describing how employees feel about their jobs, management and the organization. These feelings are tied to the behaviours and attitudes which the employees show in their workplace. When employees have good morale, they feel committed to the management and the organization, loyal to their jobs and motivated to be productive. They work harder, produce more, meet deadlines and give it their all. Low morale of the employees takes a toll on employees’ performance and productivity. Employee morale is related to how the employees feel about the organization. It is an important factor in creating a healthy work environment.  Organization which has higher employee morale displays improved productivity, improved performance and creativity, reduced number of days taken for leave, higher attention to details, a safer workplace, and an increased quality of work. In addition to that, the organization has employees who arrive to work on time, communicate better, waste lesser time in gossip, have higher rate of retention, and are more creative. Moreover, employees who work with high morale develop higher rates of job satisfaction, creativeness and innovation, respect for their own job, commitment to the organization, eagerness to satisfy group objectives instead of individual objectives, and desire to improve the organizational performance. On the other hand,...

Automation in Steel Industry Dec29

Automation in Steel Industry...

Automation in Steel Industry Steel is an alloy of iron usually containing less than 1 % carbon. Because of its versatile properties and its recycling possibilities, steel is the basic material for sustained development in modern industrial society. It provides a broad  range of uses in almost all important sectors of industry such as apparatus and machinery manufacture, bridge and building construction, power and environmental engineering, and automotive and transportation industries. Steel is and will remain the most important engineering and construction material in the modern era. The steel industry is a very dynamic industrial sector. Further steps are ongoing towards increasing resource and energy efficiency, reducing emissions and providing safe and healthy work environments. For achieving this, the steel industry is to excel in today’s environment which is a highly dynamic and interactive business environment. Market conditions, new product requirements, raw material costs, and process management etc. all affects the performance of the steel industry. The steel industry is an important driving force of the economy and hence it should be run efficiently. Further it needs heavy investments and hence it is essential that it operates economically to keep it healthy. Its products are indispensable for other industries such as automotive and construction. Quality, reliability and economic efficiency in the production of steel products can only be ensured by means of automated manufacturing facilities. The processes of steel industry are highly energy intensive and comprised of many complex unit operations. Iron ore and coal need preprocessing before feeding into a reactor, and liquid metals from different reactors need to be carefully handled. Further liquid steel is to be converted into solid form and then rolled into finished products. Each of these operations has a stake in the quality of steel produced, and also needs...

Properties of Refractories...

Properties of Refractories Refractories are those materials which have high melting points and have properties which make them suitable to act as heat resisting barriers between high and low temperature zones. Refractories are inorganic, nonmetallic, porous and heterogeneous materials composed of thermally stable mineral aggregates, a binder phase and additives. The general requirements of refractories include (i) ability to withstand high temperatures and trap heat within a limited area such as a furnace, (ii) ability to withstand action of liquid metal, hot gasses and liquid slag by resisting erosion and corrosion etc. (iii) ability to withstand load at service environment, (iv) ability to resist contamination of the material with which it comes into contact, (v) ability to maintain necessary dimensional stability at high temperatures and after/during repeated thermal cycling, and (vi) ability to conserve heat. Important properties of refractories include chemical composition, bulk density, apparent porosity, apparent specific gravity and strength at atmospheric temperatures. These properties are frequently among those which are used as ‘control points’ in the manufacturing and quality control process. The chemical composition serves as a basic for classification of refractories and the density, porosity and strength are influenced by many other factors. Among these are type and quality of the raw materials, the size and fit of the particles, moisture content at the time of pressing, pressure at mould, firing temperature, duration of firing, and the rate of cooling. Properties of the refractories can be classified to resist four types of service stresses namely (i) chemical, (ii) mechanical, (iii) thermal, and (iv) thermo-technical. A suitable selection of the refractories for the furnace lining can only be made with an accurate knowledge of the refractory properties and the stresses on the refractories during service. The relationship between service stresses and important...

Workers and their Role in the Organization...

Workers and their Role in the Organization Workers are non- executive employees of the organization. Percent wise, they constitute largest number of employees in the organization. In the pyramid of the organization structure, the workers occupy the bottom most place which is below the supervisor level. Workers are so called since they are those of the organizational employees who physically carry out the work in the organization and who implements the plans made by the organizational management. For doing it, workers work with various tools, equipments, instruments, implements and processes.  The performance of the organization depends on how efficiently the workers perform their work. In nutshell the workers are the back bone of the organization and healthy, well trained, knowledgeable, disciplined, motivated, safe, alert, honest, and hardworking team of workers help the organization to prosper and grow. The traits, which the workers need to personify, include teamwork, integrity, commitment, and work ethic. Fig 1 Place of workers in the organizational structure In different countries, the definition of a worker varies depending upon the culture of the country. However, generally a worker can be defined as a person employed in the organization to carry out manual, unskilled, skilled, technical, operational, clerical, or certain category of supervisory work in lieu of a compensation package. It excludes employees who are employed in the organization in the managerial and supervisory levels. Defining of work is not an easy task as it appears to be. Work is what the workers do to earn a livelihood. Work is best described as sustained activity whose purpose is the accomplishment of goals. Developments at the technological front in the recent past have necessitated rising levels of education of the workers and now greater challenges and skill requirements are expected from them. The...