Blast Furnace Cast House Equipments May16

Blast Furnace Cast House Equipments...

Blast Furnace Cast House Equipments The cast house floor of a blast furnace has always been one of the most dangerous working places in a blast furnace. Apart from working in an atmosphere which includes toxic gases, fumes, and dust, the operators have to perform hard and heavy manual work close to hot metal and slag runners and ladles filled with hot metal. Before the invention and installation of cast house equipment, the tapholes were opened and closed manually. Opening was done by means of steel bars and sledgehammers, whereas the taphole was closed by repeatedly ramming small amounts of clay or refractory material into the taphole, again with the help of long, heavy bars. In addition, on blast furnace, the blast had to be stopped, since it was impossible to close the taphole properly against the blast furnace pressure. This stoppage of the blast resulted in regular losses of production. Samuel W. Vaughen of USA invented the first mud gun in 1895. His pneumatic mud gun machine operated with steam, had a detachable nozzle that had to be swung open to load the taphole mass. In 1901 there was another big change in taphole practices when Ernst Menne of Germany invented the oxygen lance. By blowing oxygen through a 1/8 inch pipe and igniting it, it was now possible to open the taphole very quickly compared to the pure manual method. The first records of taphole drills is found around 1921 when Edgar E. Brosius and Joseph E. Judy of USA suggested a method of drilling the taphole for its opening. Brosius even invented a combined drilling and lancing apparatus in 1924. An excellent cast house setup is an important necessity for a low cost, high productivity blast furnace since an effective operation...

Metal Forming Processes...

Metal Forming Processes Metal forming processes consists of deformation processes in which a metal work piece (billet, bloom, or blank) is shaped by tools or dies. The design and control of such processes depend on the characteristics of the material of the work piece, the requirements of the finished product, the conditions at the interface of the tool and the work piece, the mechanics of plastic deformation (metal flow), and the equipment used. These factors influence the selection of geometry and material of the tool as well as processing conditions (examples are temperatures of die and work piece and lubrication). Since many of the metalworking operations are rather complex, models of various types, such as analytical, physical, or numerical models, are often used to design these processes. A brief historical view, a classification of metalworking processes and equipment, and a summary of some of the more recent developments in the field are described below. Historical view Metalworking technology is one of three major technologies used for the fabrication of the metal products. The other two are casting process and powder metallurgy (P/M) technology. It is possibly the oldest and most established of the three technologies. The earliest records of metalworking show that the simple hammering of gold (Au) and copper (Cu) was practiced in various regions of the Middle East around 8000 BCE. The forming of these metals was crude since the skill of refining by smelting was not known and since the ability to work the material was limited by impurities that remained after the metal had been separated from its ore. With the start of Cu smelting around 4000 BCE, a useful method became available for purifying metals through chemical reactions in the liquid state. Later, in the Cu age, it was...

Management of Complexities in the Organization...

Management of Complexities in the Organization All the organizations are usually complex in nature since they are to pursue complex goals and, as a consequence, are likely to face complex issues. It is the responsibility of the organizational management to navigate, manage, and solve the different kinds of complexity existing in the organization to ensure that the organization fulfills its objectives and delivers the intended results. The management is not to be daunted by the challenges and is to recognize that operational, outcome-based, and environmental challenges are inherent to the organization and cannot be avoided. In fact, the management is to be always ready to meet the challenge of managing the intrinsic complexities present in the organization. There are, however, other kinds of complexities that must also be managed. These are those complexities which are seemingly extrinsic to the organization. These are complexities which are needed to be navigated for the internal organizational governance and for the implementation of the organizational strategies and plans. The understanding of the impact of complexities on the organization can be a complex attempt unto itself since complexities by nature are normally complicated or intricate as to be hard to understand or deal with. However, it is easier to navigate a complexity. To better understand complexities and how to navigate them requires that the management makes them more understandable. It requires that the management is able to appreciate and explain their root causes, so that the organization can better recognizes and controls their emergence. It requires that the organization develops the right tools to manage them. Complexity management frameworks are useful for this purpose. Primary sources of complexities Normally organizations encounter three major categories of complexities. These complexities are based on human behaviour, system behaviour, and ambiguity. The complexities...

Development of the Technology of Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking May05

Development of the Technology of Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking...

Development of the Technology of Electric Arc Furnace SteelmakingĀ  Development of the steelmaking technology takes place for meeting of a number of requirements. These requirements can be classified into four groups as given below. The technology has to meet the process requirements needed for producing different steel grades of required qualities. The technology is to meet the economic requirements needed for controlling the cost of production so that produced steel products are competitive. The technology is to meet the emission levels set by the regulatory agencies. The technology is to meet the health and safety requirements so that operators work in the area without any dangers, stress and stains. To understand electric arc furnace (EAF), it is necessary to understand what an electric arc is. An electric arc is a form of electrical discharge between two electrodes, separated by a small gap (typically, normal air). The best known example of this is lightning. Anyone who has performed arc welding is also familiar with electric arcs. If one connects the work piece to the negative side of a DC power source and an electrode to the positive side, touch the electrode momentarily and draw it a small distant apart from the work piece, then a stable electric arc forms between the electrodes and the work pieceĀ  and the heat from this arc is sufficient to melt the electrode and weld the work pieces together. The same idea is used in a larger scale in an electric arc furnace. The history of electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking is not very old. It is only slightly more than a century when the first furnace was commissioned to melt steel by utilizing electric power. The initial development of the technology took place, since these units made it possible...