Hot Rolled Steel Bars and Shapes...

Hot Rolled Steel Bars and Shapes Hot rolled steel bars and hot rolled steel shapes are produced from rolled in hot rolling mills or continuous cast blooms or billets and comprise a variety of sizes and cross sections. Bars and shapes are most often produced in straight lengths, but bars in some cross sections in smaller sizes are also produced in coils. The term ‘bar’ includes (i) rounds, squares, hexagons, and similar cross sections 10 mm and greater across, (ii) flats greater than 5 mm in thickness and 150 mm and less in width or greater than 6 mm in thickness and 200 mm and less in width, (iii) small angles, channels, tees, and other standard shapes less than equal to 75 mm across, and (iv) concrete reinforcement bars. The term ‘shape’ includes structural shapes and special shapes. Structural shapes are flanged, are 80 mm or greater in at least one cross-sectional dimension, and are used in structures such as bridges, buildings, ships, and railway wagons. Special shapes are those designed by users for specific applications.  Fig 1 shows various types of hot rolled bars and shapes. Fig1 Types of steel bars and shapes Dimensions, tolerances and surface imperfections The nominal dimensions of hot-rolled steel bars and shapes are designated in millimeters with applicable tolerances, as shown in the applicable standards. Bars or shapes can be cut to length in the rolling mill by a number of methods, such as hot or cold shearing or sawing. The method used is determined by cross section, grade, and customer requirements. Some end distortion is to be expected from most methods. When greater accuracy in length or freedom from distortion is required, bars of shapes are normally cut over-length, and then recut on one or both ends...

Performance Management for Organizational Success...

Performance Management for Organizational Success Performance management in an organization includes activities which ensure that goals are consistently being met in an effective and efficient manner. It focuses on the performance of the organization, department, employees, or even the production processes which produces the product or service, as well as many other areas. It is also known as a process by which the organization aligns the resources, systems and employees to strategic objectives and priorities. An organization aspiring for success needs in place the process of performance management. Aims of the performance management in the organization are (i) to make the performance of the organization visible, (ii) to drive the management and the employees to take actions, and (iii) to provide timely feedback on the effect of the actions for taking corrective measures. Performance management highlights the visible performance gaps in the organization. It creates increased pressure on the management and the employees for improvement in the performance level. It identifies the areas of improvement in the organization. It helps the organization for sustaining the continuous improvement in quality, cost, safety, and in meeting the customer requirements. Performance management is a structured visual approach to monitoring of the organizational performance, highlighting issues and reacting to them in a timely manner. Performance management system is required in the organization for the purpose of meeting obligations to customers, employees, shareholders and other stakeholders. Collection and analyzing of data is an important necessity in the process of the performance management. Accuracy of the data for the performance indicators is necessary for the stimulation of the improvement activities in the organization. The data-improvement cycle is given below in Fig 1. Fig 1 Data improvement cycle Performance management is a tool to ensure effective management in the organization. It is the process...

Developments of Steelmaking Processes Feb22

Developments of Steelmaking Processes...

Developments of Steelmaking Processes The earliest known production of steel are pieces of ironware excavated from an archaeological site in Anatolia and are nearly 4,000 years old, dating from 1800 BCE (before common era). Horace identified steel weapons like the falcata in the Iberian Peninsula, while Noric steel was used by the Roman army. The reputation of ‘Seric iron’ of South India (wootz steel) amongst the Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, East Africans, Chinese and the Middle East grew considerably. South Indian and Mediterranean sources including Alexander the Great (3rd century BCE) recount the presentation and export to the Greeks of such steel. Metal production sites in Sri Lanka employed wind furnaces driven by the monsoon winds, capable of producing high-carbon (C) steel. Large-scale wootz steel production in Tamilakam using crucibles and C sources such as the plant Avaram occurred by the sixth century BCE, the pioneering precursor to modern steel production and metallurgy. Steel was produced in large quantities in Sparta around 650 BCE. The Chinese of the Warring states period (403 BCE to 221 BCE) had quenched hardened steel, while Chinese of the Han dynasty (202 BCE to 220 CE) created steel by melting together wrought iron with cast iron, gaining an ultimate product of a carbon-intermediate steel by the 1st century CE (common era). The Haya people of East Africa invented a type of furnace they used to make C steel at 1,800 deg C nearly 2,000 years ago. East African steel has been suggested by Richard Hooker to date back to 1400 BCE. Evidence of the earliest production of high C steel in the Indian subcontinent is found in Kodumanal in Tamilnadu, Golkonda in Telengana, and Karnataka and in Samanalawewa areas of Sri Lanka. This steel known as wootz steel, produced by about sixth century BCE was exported globally. The steel technology existed prior to 326 BCE in the region as they are mentioned in...

Pure Iron

Pure Iron Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin word Ferrum). Its atomic number is 26 and atomic mass is 55.85. It has a melting point of 1538 deg C and boiling point of 2862 deg C. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on the earth, forming much of earth’s outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element and the second most common metal in the earth crust. Steels contain over 95 % Fe. Pure iron is a common metal but it is mostly confused with other metals such as steel and wrought iron. All these metals vary in composition. The carbon content of pure iron makes it unique and different from the other metals and ferrous alloys. The carbon content in pure iron is always less than 0.008 %. Wrought iron has a higher carbon content of up to 0.5 %. This shows how less the impurities are in the pure iron. Pure iron is silvery white colored metal and is extremely lustrous. Its most important property is that it is very soft. It is easy to work and shape and it is just soft enough to cut through (with quite a bit of difficulty) using a knife. Pure iron can be hammered into sheets and drawn into wires. It conducts heat and electricity and is very easy to magnetize. Its other properties include easy corrosion in the presence of moist air and high temperatures. Pure iron has got valencies +2 and +3. Compounds of iron with valency +2 are known as ferrous compounds while the compounds of iron with valency +3 are known as ferric compounds. Metallurgy of pure iron The metallurgical nature of solid pure iron can be studied from...

Workplace discipline

Workplace discipline Workplace discipline is the discipline which the employees are to observe at the workplace. It is fundamental to the smooth running of an organization. The organization runs efficiently when all its processes functions normally and the normal working of the processes occurs when the all the procedures are followed without any deviations. The word ‘discipline has the same origin as the word ‘disciple’. Just as the disciple follows the teachings of his teacher, so discipline means following the rules, laws, and procedures of the organization or the technical processes of the workplace.  As per dictionary the meaning of discipline includes instructions and learning. It also includes improvement, correction as well as punishment. Discipline is defined as a force that prompts individuals and group of employees to observe rules, regulations, systems, processes and procedures which are considered to be necessary for the effective functioning of the organization. It is also defined as an activity that involves acting in accordance with a set of known rules, proven guidelines and conventions framed for the purpose. It is basically an attitude of the mind and a product of culture and environment. Discipline refers to the regulation of behaviour of the employees of the organization involving rules that govern goal orientation and behaviour of employees inside and outside the organization. Workplace discipline consists of those features of discipline which the employees are to observe at their workplace. There are two major features of the workplace discipline (Fig 1). These are given below. Observation without any deviations the technical instructions, procedures, standards, guidelines, and practices of the technological processes which the employees are operating at their workplaces Observation of the rules and regulations of the organization which the management has framed for the functioning of the organization Fig1...