Steel Wire Rods

Steel Wire Rods Steel wire rod is a semi-finished product which is rolled from steel billet in a wire rod mill and is used primarily for the manufacture of wire. For a steel plant it is a finished product. The steel for wire rod is produced by all the modern steelmaking processes, including the basic oxygen and electric furnace processes. Steel wire rod is usually cold drawn into wire suitable for further processing such as cold rolling, cold heading, cold upsetting, cold extrusion, cold forging, or hot forging. Although wire rod may be produced in several regular shapes (round, square, hexagonal, and rectangular), most of the wire rods rolled are round in cross section. Round wire rod is usually produced in nominal diameters of 5 mm to 15 mm, advancing in increments of 0.5 mm.  ISO 16124:2004 gives diameters of round steel wire rods ranging from 5 mm to 50 mm, advancing in increments of 0.5 mm up to 20 mm and thereafter in the increments of 1 mm. As the wire rod comes out of the rolling mill, it is formed into coils. The coils are secured either tying with a wire or strapped with a strapping band. In each coil, wire rod is continuous without any break.  Internal diameter of a wire rod coil usually varies in the range of 810 mm to 910 mm depending on the mill equipment. The external diameter of the wire rod coil depends on its weight and usually it is in the range of 1100 mm to 1300 mm. The coil weight can vary from mill to mill and normally it is in the range of 600 kg to 2.5 tons. Coil weights that exceed the capabilities of the rolling mill sometimes can be obtained by welding...

Managing Change in the Workplace...

Managing Change in the Workplace Workplace changes take place in every organization because of several reasons. Some of them are (i) administrative, (ii) upgradation of technologies, (iii) additions of new departments, units or branches because of expansion, and (iv) restructuring/reorganization within the organization etc. Whatever be the reason for the workplace changes, it throws certain challenges for the management. If the process of change is not managed properly, then it has adverse impact on the working of the organization. There are two major categories of change initiatives which the management adopts for the workplace changes. These initiatives result into either strategic changes or operational changes.  Example of the strategic workplace changes are those changes which take place due to the succession planning by the management. Operational workplace changes take place to meet the demand crated by technological upgradation, the additions of new departments, units, or branches because of expansion, or if a need arises in some departments due to the leaving of the present employees. During the strategic change initiative of the workplace change, the purpose of the initiative is changing the mind-set of the employee so that he can take higher responsibilities in future. In case of operational change initiative of the workplace usually management tries to pick up those employees who can pick up the processes of the new workplace quicker. However, the employees normally need some sort of introduction to the new processes and systems. During the workplace changes employees are introduced to the systems and processes of the new workplace. They need to learn them and adopt them quickly and swiftly. Further they may get non co-operation from some of the present employees of the new workplace since these present employees feel threatened in achieving their personal goals. Employees normally...

Air Blast System for Blast Furnace Jan29

Air Blast System for Blast Furnace...

Air Blast System for Blast Furnace A blast furnace (BF) produces liquid iron (hot metal) by the reduction of ore burden with reducing gases. The reducing gases are produced by the reaction of oxygen with coke and coal. This oxygen is part of enriched hot air blast which is blown and distributed at the bottom of the BF through the straight pipes, blowpipes and the tuyeres. This set is connected to the main bustle pipe. The volume of air which is enriched with oxygen and blown for the process in the BF to take place is provided by the air blowers. These air blowers take the air from atmosphere and compress it to the required pressure. This compressed air which is at about up to 200 deg C temperatures after compression is enriched with oxygen and blown into the hot stoves where the temperature is raised up to 1.200 to 1250 deg C. This hot blast air is then taken to bustle pipe through hot blast main. Air blast systems of modern high capacity blast furnaces operate with blast temperatures of up to 1350 deg C and blast pressures up to 5 kg/sq cm (g). The whole process is typically shown in Fig 1. Fig 1 Schematics of typical air blast system The main components of an air blast system of a blast furnace consist of (i) air blower, (ii) cold blast main, (iii) hot blast stove along with its combustion system, (iv) hot blast main, (v) bustle pipe, (vi) blow pipes and tuyeres known as tuyere stocks, (vii) set of valves, and (viii) control instruments. The air blower is the first equipment in the air blast system. It is located in the blower house and is meant for providing cold air blast to the...

Cast Steels and Steel Castings...

Cast Steels and Steel Castings Steel casting is a specialized form of casting involving various types of steels. Steel castings are used when cast irons cannot deliver enough strength or shock resistance. A steel casting is the product formed by pouring liquid steel into a mould cavity. The liquid steel cools and solidifies in the mould cavity and is then removed for cleaning. Heat treatment may be needed to meet desired properties. This process provides the near net shape and mechanical properties required for meeting the specifications. The differences between steel castings and wrought steels are principally in the method of production. In the case of wrought steel cast ingots, slabs, blooms, and billets are mechanically worked to produce flat, sectional or tubular products. However, steel castings are produced in the final product (near net shape product) form without any intermediate mechanical working. The making of a steel casting is a long and complex process. A large investment in capital equipment is required for the melting of steel, manufacturing of cores and moulds and the cleaning and heat treating of castings. Additional major investments for support equipment and facilities are required for sand reclamation systems, dust collection devices and bulk material handling systems etc. Steel castings are used for vitally important components in the mining, railways, automotive, construction, military, and various industries including oil and gas industries. Steel castings are specified for applications which require weldability, abrasion resistance, high strength, low and high temperature service and corrosion resistance. Though there are large numbers of steel foundries, yet due to the diversity of market requirements such as size, tolerances, chemistry, volume, etc., a single foundry cannot serve all of the market and each foundry tends to specialize in a portion of the total market. Some of the specialized...

Managing Fatigue at the Workplace...

Managing Fatigue at the Workplace Fatigue is a physical and/or mental state caused by overexertion. It is an acute, ongoing state of tiredness that leads to mental or physical exhaustion and prevents people from functioning within normal boundaries. It is more than feeling tired and drowsy. It is a physical condition that can occur when a person’s physical or mental limits are reached. Fatigue can be caused by factors which may be work related, non-work related or a combination of both and can accumulate over time. In a work context, fatigue reduces an employee’s ability to perform work safely and effectively. It reduces the employee’s capabilities to an extent that may impair his strength, speed, reaction time, coordination, decision making, or balance. It can occur because of prolonged mental or physical activity, sleep loss and/or disruption of the internal body clock. Fatigue is caused by prolonged periods of physical and/or mental exertion without enough time to rest and recover. It is a catch-all term for a variety of symptoms, ranging from muscle pain to difficulty in concentrating, or sleepiness. It can compromise health and safety at work and is a common outcome of stress and shift-work. Fatigue is defined as ‘the temporary inability, or decrease in ability, or strong disinclination to respond to a situation, because of inadequate recuperation from previous over-activity which can be either mental, or emotional, or physical’. Fatigue can be considered as local or general, acute or chronic. Acute fatigue is the result of sudden and/or severe exposure or onset, while chronic fatigue usually develops after longer exposures, often of a significantly smaller intensity than present in acute fatigue. Chronic fatigue develops slowly. A common symptom of fatigue is an unpleasant, general sensation of weariness. Other outcomes of fatigue include...