Management of Workplace Conflicts...

Management of Workplace Conflicts The differences of the employees of an organization define their uniqueness. These differences can be due to their backgrounds, culture, gender, beliefs, values, and behaviours. Different employees may have differences with their co-employees in the peer groups. They may have different abilities, talents, and levels of attractiveness or interest. These differences though help in the progress and contribute to the dynamics of the organization yet they also contribute to workplace conflicts in the organization. Each of the employees of the organization is likely to experience some degree of conflict, be it personal, professional, or organizational. Employees of the organization are human beings and the very essence of being human contributes directly to the varying degrees of unhappiness, distress and destruction. Every employee has his own unique background and his own needs defined by his values and beliefs. When these needs are not met, or are denied, then the employee is in the state of conflict. All the employees of the organization are different from each other. They have different needs, tastes, opinions, beliefs, preferences and values. There is a need to cope with these differences. The differences are not to be allowed to get in the way and be the source of workplace conflict. On the contrary the differences are to be exploited for the employees’ creativities. Workplace conflicts are of four types (Fig 1). They are (i) conflicts over facts and data, (ii) conflicts over process or methods, (iii) conflicts over purpose, and (iv) conflicts over values. Further, the workplace conflicts can be simple or complex. These are always the underlying causes for various conflicts at the workplace. Conflicts over facts and data – The two sides involved in the conflict have two sets of facts or two different...

History of Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Dec16

History of Basic Oxygen Steelmaking...

History of Basic Oxygen Steelmaking  Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) is the process of making steel by blowing pure oxygen (O2) in a liquid metal bath contained in a vessel which is known as basic oxygen furnace (BOF), LD converter, or simply converter. The history of steelmaking began in the 19th century, when Reaumur of France in 1772, Kelly of the United States in 1850 and Bessemer of Britain in 1856 discovered how to improve on pig iron by controlling the carbon content of iron alloys, which thus truly become steels. While Reaumur, a chemist, was driven by scientific curiosity, but Kerry and Bessemer being engineers, were responding to the need for larger quantities and better qualities of steel which the industrial revolution, with its looms, steam engines, machines and railroads, had created. This had started a dialectical relationship between science and technology and the basic concepts of refining hot metal (pig iron) by oxidizing carbon (C) in a liquid bath were invented at that time. This was a radical change from the gas-solid reaction in the shaft furnaces, the predecessors of blast furnaces which reduce iron ore with charcoal, or from the puddling of iron which was a forging and refining technology carried out in the solid state and which has no equivalent in the present time. The intensity of innovations which at the second half of the 19th century was impressive and it brought a paradigm shift. Steel making by Bessemer converter came into existence in 1856, the open hearth furnace, which can melt scrap in addition to refining hot metal, was discovered nine years only after the Bessemer converter in 1865, and the basic Thomas converter twelve years later in 1877.  The Thomas converter was using air for the refining of the...

Steels as a Material for Rail Tracks...

Steels as a Material for Rail Tracks Railways were originally uniquely identified with the material of their initial construction and now are technically identified by the characteristic contact of ?steel wheel on steel rail?. The phrase ?Railways need steel ? steel needs railways?, defines the relationship between steel industry and the railways. Presently railways rely on a wide variety of steels for its materials requirement. It is since steel meets the requirements of cost, weight, reliability, crashworthiness, maintainability and inspection required by the railways. Large varieties of steels are used by railways for its requirement for (i) rolling stock (locomotives, coaches, and wagons), (ii) rail tracks (permanent way), (ii) electric traction, and (iv) infrastructure. A wide variety of steels is needed by railways. These include flat products, structural products, bar and wire products, special products like rails, wheels and axles, tubular products and steels for reinforcement. Steels required by railways are in the form of castings, rolled products and fabricates products. The quality of steels needed by railways varies with the application. The quality of steels used are mild steel, other plain carbon steels, alloy steels, high strength steels, wear resistant steels, corrosion resistant steels, spring steels, electrical steels, and stainless steels etc. Further some steels need special processing to meet the specific requirements of railways. The requirement of various steels is getting updated on a continuous basis with the advancement of rail engineering. For this, railways and the steel industry work in close co-ordination with each other. The rail track is known as a stable structure. It ensures the transportation of trains through providing a dependable surface for their wheels. As to the development of rail track, it has a long history. The first rail track was made of wood and had continued...

Management of Workplace Stress...

Management of Workplace Stress Workplace stress occurs when there is a mismatch between the demands of the job and the resources and capabilities of the individual employee to meet those demands. It is the adverse reaction which the employees have to excessive pressures or other types of demand placed on them. There is a clear distinction between pressure, which can create a ‘buzz’ and be a motivating factor, and workplace stress, which can occur when this pressure becomes excessive. Workplace stress is a matter of great concern.  Excessive stress can interfere with the employee’s productivity and impact the physical and emotional health and the ability of the employee to deal with it. It can mean the difference between success and failure. Stress has been defined in different ways over the years. Originally, it was conceived of as pressure from the environment, then as strain within the person. Stress is defined as “the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressures or other types of demand placed on them”. The generally accepted definition today is one of interaction between the situation and the individual. It is the psychological and physical state that results when the resources of the individual are not sufficient to cope with the demands and pressures of the situation. Thus, stress is more likely in some situations than others and in some individuals than others. Stress can undermine the achievement of goals, both for the individual employee and for the organization. Earlier the typical response from the management to workplace stress used to be blaming the victim of the stress, rather than its cause. But presently the situation is changing and it is now being recognised that the management has a duty, in many cases enforced by the statutory authorities, to ensure that...

Rolling mill Rolls and Roll Shop Dec10

Rolling mill Rolls and Roll Shop...

Rolling mill Rolls and Roll Shop Rolls are the main and very costly consumables in a rolling mill. They are used to roll steel in the rolling mill and their performance depend on many factors which include the materials used and the loads to which they are subjected to during service. The roll design is influenced by the limitations applied by the rolling load, the roll strength and the torque available for rolling. In case of flat rolling it is also influenced by the allowance made for roll bending and by cambering of the rolls. The roll design is to take-care the load and torque required for any pass. In addition it must ensure that the physical dimensions and material of the roll are capable of withstanding the heaviest loads arising during the rolling sequence. Another important factor where roll life is concerned is the wear properties of the roll material. Roll materials In the rolling of steels, the material of the rolls is to be capable of withstanding loads which plastically deforms the rolling stock without itself being plastically deformed. In the rolling of hot steel this is not a difficult problem and iron or steel rolls are suitable if they are operated at a temperature considerably lower than that of the rolling stock. Whether iron or steel rolls are used in any particular case depends on the specific duty they have to perform and whether toughness, resistance to thermal cracking or shock loading or hard wearing properties is most important. Rolls can be classified according to the roll materials (Fig 1) and the method of manufacture, the first main subdivision being (i) iron rolls, and (ii) steel rolls. This division depends on the carbon content of the material. In the case of...