Comparison of Steel with Aluminum...

Comparison of Steel with Aluminum Steel is an alloy of iron and other elements, primarily carbon. It is most commonly produced by reduction of iron ore. Carbon, the most common alloying material in steel, acts as a hardening agent, preventing any dislocations within the iron atom crystal lattice from separating and sliding past each other thus making steel more durable. By varying the amount of alloying elements and the form of their presence in the steel, one can control qualities such as hardness, ductility, and tensile strength of steel. Though, steel has been known to be around since 4,000 years ago, it was not widely produced until the 17th century. Its mass production started due to the introduction of the Bessemer process during 1850s. This process made steel production cheaper, efficient and easier. Production of steel is a two stage process. First iron is produced by reduction of iron ore. This iron is then converted into steel by oxidizing the impurities. (Fig 1) Fig 1 Production process of steel Steel is widely used in construction and other applications because of its high tensile strength and low cost. Iron is the basic component of steel. Composition of steel mainly consists of iron and other elements such as carbon, manganese, silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, and alloying elements. A large number of elements in wide ranging percentages are used for the purpose of alloying of steels. Variations in chemical composition of steels are responsible for a great variety of steel grades and steel properties. Each element that is added to the basic steel composition has some effect on the properties of the steel and how that steel reacts to the processes of working and fabrication of steels. The chemical composition of steel also determines the behaviour of steel in...

Workplace Communication...

Workplace Communication Communication is the process of sharing ideas, information, and messages with others in a particular time and place. There are many means of communication. It is the lifeblood of an organization and, without it, things do not get done. To be an effective and valuable at the workplace, it is important that the employees must have skills in the different methods of communication.  In the communication process, it must pass from a sender to a receiver. This must occur irrespective of the form of communication. Workplace communication is the transmitting of information from one employee or group of employees to another employee or other group of employees in the organization. This communication is vital for the ability of the organization to be productive and also for its smooth operation. Communication includes written and verbal communication, as well as nonverbal communication (such as facial expressions, body language, or gestures), visual communication (the use of images or pictures, such as painting, photograph, video or film) and electronic communication (telephone calls, and electronic mail etc.). For communication to be effective it must be understood by the receiver and be able to be responded to. This means that total communication involves speaking, reading, listening, and reasoning skills. As communications pass from the source to the receiver there is plenty of opportunity for its original meaning to change or alter. Therefore listening, reasoning and feedback is an important part of the process as it is an opportunity for the sender to make sure the receiver has understood the message. Communication is about sending, receiving, and understanding of the information and its meaning. Receiving and understanding are the most important operations in the communication process, since the response of the receiver defines whether the communication attempt is successful or...

Iron Ore Agglomeration Processes and their Historical Development Dec28

Iron Ore Agglomeration Processes and their Historical Development...

Iron Ore Agglomeration Processes and their Historical Development There are four types of agglomerating processes which have been developed (Fig 1). They are (i) briquetting, (ii) nodulizing, (iii) sintering, and (iv) pelletizing. Fig 1 Agglomeration processes Briquetting is the simplest and earliest applied process. Fine grained iron ores are pressed in to pillow shaped briquettes with the addition of some water or some other binder under high mechanical compressive pressure. In the nodulizing process, fines or concentrate along with carbonaceous material are passed through inclined rotary kiln heated by gas or oil. The temperature inside the kiln is sufficient to soften but not high enough to fuse the ore. The nodules vary considerably in composition and are too dense, slaggy, lack required porosity and hence this process could not find great favour. Briquetting and nodulizing are cold binding processes and mostly used for the recycling of recovered iron ore wastes in the steel plant. Sintering and pelletizing are the processes of major importance for the iron production. During 2014, as per World Steel Association, the production of blast furnace iron and direct reduced iron were 1183 million tons and 73 million tons respectively. Most of this production has come from iron ore in the form of sinter and pellet. While the preferred feedstock for blast furnace iron is sinter and/or pellets, that of direct reduced iron is pellets only. Though accurate production data for sinter and pellets are not compiled, but world production of sinter and pellets together can be safely estimated to be well over 1300 million tons per year to support the iron production of 1256 million tons. Historically, the feedstock for the world?s blast furnaces was naturally occurring lump ores. During the mining of iron ores, large amounts were getting generated....

Website http://ispatguru.com/    has climbed to 25th position amongst 84 steel related websites of India and abroad. Detailed report is below. Dec17

Website http://ispatguru.com/ has climbed to 25th position amongst 84 steel related websites of India and abroad. Detailed report is below....

Website http://ispatguru.com/    has climbed to 25th position amongst 84 steel related websites of India and abroad. Detailed report is below.  Website report card no. 6 Date 17th December 2015 Welcome to the report card no.6 of the website http://ispatguru.com/. The first report card was issued on 4th May 2014, while the second, third, fourth and fifth report cards were issued on 5th July 2014, 9th October 2014, 18th Feb 2015, and 7th May 2015 respectively. The website was started in February 2013 to share with the steel professionals my knowledge and experience gained at Bhilai Steel Plant, Rourkela Steel plant, Bokaro Steel Plant, Visakhapatnam Steel Plant, Neelachal Ispat Nigam Limited, and Cherepovets Steel Plant as well as through interactions with Gipromej (of then USSR), MN Dastur company private limited, and Mecon limited.  In its existence of two years and three months, the website has shown a steady  growth, and has become quite popular around the world as seen from the following statistics. Website data analyzed in this report card are from Google Analytics and alexa.com. Ranking As per alexa.com the global ranking of the website ispatguru.com is 1,169,394 on 17th December 2015. This ranking has been compared with the rankings of 84 nos. of steel related websites which are famous in India and in the world. This comparison gives ispatguru.com a 25th position amongst the 84 websites. Considering the short existence of the ispatguru.com, the climb up of the web site in the ranking is quite satisfactory. The comparison is shown in attached Tab 1. Comments on the website A large number of comments are being received from the people visiting the website. Some are article based while others are of general nature. These comments are from a large cross section of people both...

Steel and Transmission of Electric Power...

Steel and Transmission of Electric Power  Transmission of electric power is a process by which the electric power produced at power plants is transported in bulk quantities over long distances for eventual use by consumers. The ultimate objective of electric power transmission is to provide power to customers economically, safely, reliably, efficiently, and with minimal environmental impact. Each of these aspects has one or more quantitative measure, such as price per kilowatt-hour, number and lethality of accidents, frequency and duration of service interruptions, generating plant heat rate, transmission and distribution losses, and emissions factors. Transmission systems are designed, and their individual components selected, with all of these objectives in mind, though they may be optimized differently in different systems. Power transmission process has got three main components (Fig 1). They are (i) substations, (ii) transmission poles and towers, and (iii) electricity conductors. Steel plays a major role in all these three components of transmitting power from the point of generation to the consumers. Fig 1 Components of power transmission process Steel use in substations Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. Substation varies in size and configuration. Between the generating station and consuming point, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels. A substation consists of (i) outdoor switch yard, (ii) a building which houses the control equipment, and (iii) the fencing. The outdoor switch yard has (i) structures at dead-end, (ii) static poles, and bus supports and equipment stands. It has also got the grounding arrangement. Structures at dead-end are those structures where the transmission line ends or angles off. They are typically constructed with heavier structural steels in case they are needed to carry heavier tension. The two most common dead-end...