Billet Inspection and Conditioning Facilities Aug20

Billet Inspection and Conditioning Facilities...

 Billet Inspection and Conditioning Facilities A considerable percentage of steel bars and wire rods are used for the safety-related parts of automobiles after undergoing post-processing steps (secondary and ternary processing). Quality requirements for these steel bars and wire rods are becoming increasingly diversified in consideration of the workability at the stage of secondary and ternary processing and the use conditions of the machine parts into which they are made. In addition, the need for quality assurance throughout the entire length of the steel bars and wire rods has also increased, and the steel plants are required to apply very severe quality standards for meeting these requirements. Due to this reason, the importance of the reliability of inspection and conditioning of billets which is the starting material for the production of steel bars and wire rods has increased significantly. Depending on the application, billets require surface inspection and conditioning to minimize the surface imperfections. Standard inspection methods consist of visual inspection of the billet surface under white light conditions or wet magnetic particle inspection under black UV lighting. Normally steel plants shot-blast the surface of the billet to remove the mill scale and to improve the visibility of the surface, depending on the type of surface conditions they are trying to detect. The surface imperfections are normally marked as they are detected, and these locations are conditioned. Methods employed are usually machine- grinding and sometimes scarfing. The traditional inspection techniques (other than visual method), which have been aligned to the rolled billets, are all conditioned to the detection of defects which have a significant length component, i.e. seams, rolling laps, tonguing, etc. Continuously cast billets contain, on the other hand, a completely different type of defects such as pinholes, corner tearing, reciprocation marks, entrapped scum,...

Fasteners and Their Types...

Fasteners and Their Types Steel plants are associated with the fasteners in two ways. Firstly they supply steels of various qualities used in the manufacture of fasteners and secondly, they use various types of fasteners of different varieties, sizes and qualities in the equipments used in the steel plant. A fastener is a hardware device that mechanically joins or affixes two or more objects together. It is defined as a hardware which can be easily installed and removed with hand tool or power tool. Common fasteners include screws, bolts, nuts and rivets. The terms bolts and screws do not refer to specific types of fasteners, but rather how they are used (i.e. the application). Thus the same fastener may be termed a bolt or a screw. Bolts are defined as headed fasteners having external threads that meet an exacting, uniform thread specification such that they can accept a non-tapered nut. Screws are defined as headed, externally-threaded fasteners that do not mate with a non-tapered nut and are instead threaded into the material they hold. Principal purposes of the fasteners are (i) dis-assembly for inspection and repair, (ii) modular design, where a product consists of a number of sub-assemblies. The fastener types are (i) removable which permits the parts to be readily disconnected without damaging the fastener, e.g. nut and bolt, (ii) semi-permanent type where the parts can be disconnected, but some damage usually occurs to the fastener, e.g. cotter pin, and (iii) permanent type where the parts are never be disassembled e.g. rivets and welding of fasteners The most common types of male fasteners used in industry are hex head, slotted head, flat (or countersunk) head, round head, socket (or ‘allen’) head, button head and socket set screw. The most common types of female fasteners (i.e. nuts)...

Directing – A Management Function...

Directing – A Management Function Directing is a management function through which the management instructs, guides, and inspires the employees by communicating with them. It also oversees the performance of the employees for the achievement of the predetermined goals. It is the function of leading the employees to perform efficiently, and contribute to their optimum for the achievement of the organizational objectives. Directing is a very important management function for every organization. Directing is an important link with the other management functions. The functions of planning and organizing lose their importance if the function of directing is missing in the chain of management functions. While the functions of planning and organizing prepare a base for action, the function of directing initiates the action in the organization. The process of directing in the organization is not limited to initial set of instructions but is a process which takes place on a continuous basis after it has started. Further, this process takes place at all the levels of the management. Directing functions follows the hierarchy of the organization which means that it begins at the top management level and then travels downwards in the management hierarchy. Directing consists of the process and techniques of issuing instructions for making certain that operation are carried out as planned. It is telling the employees what to do and seeing to it that they do to the best of their ability. The management experts have defined this function in many ways. Some of the definitions are given below. “Activating deals with the steps a manager takes to get sub-ordinates and others to carry out plans”. – Newman and Warren. “Directing is the inter personnel aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and contribute effectively and efficiently to...

Wire Rods and Wire Rod Mills Aug13

Wire Rods and Wire Rod Mills...

Wire Rods and Wire Rod Mills Steel wire rods are an all-round talent since they are the key product of steel industry with multiple uses. They are used as the material for fasteners, springs, bearings, wire ropes, chains, cables, wire meshes, wire fencings, tyre cord, reinforcement in railway sleepers, and many other uses. They are used for the components needed for the automotive industry, chemical industry, power stations and machine engineering. Unlike cold-rolled sheets, heavy plates, pipes, sections and other steel products, wire rods are seldom used as hot rolled for final products, but they are manufactured into machine parts after undergoing one or more stages of so called post-processing such as heat treatment, forging and wire drawing at specialist plants. Wire rods are generally drawn down to a specific diameter before being subjected to forging or other forming operations in secondary processing. In many cases, the size of the wire rods before being subjected to these forming operations is to be less than the minimum size of 5.5 mm that can be supplied as rolled. Generally each of the wire rod product is developed with due attention to its behaviour at the post-processing stages. What is required for a steel plant regarding wire rods is good processibility and fulfilment of the required properties after the processing. Furthermore, since the costs of the post-processing is sometimes several times the price of the wire rods, it is increasingly important to reduce the total integrated manufacturing cost from the steel material to the final product. Also thermo mechanically treated (TMT) reinforcement bars of 6 mm, 8mm and 10 mm basically required for the building construction are produced in the wire rod mills. The following generally characterizes the wire rod products. Product grades are widely varied from...

Steel – The Most Used Material...

Steel – The Most Used Material If people are asked to name the critical components needed for sustaining everyday life, the obvious answer will include the elements like water, food, and air. If people are asked to name necessities of life then the answer will include food, clothing and housing. No one will ever include steel in the list of the critical and necessary items. However, steel is the most common material that one comes into contact with every moment, all the day and every day. There is hardly any object that people use today which does not contain steel or which is not created with equipment made of steel. In fact, today it is hard to imagine a life without the use of steel in some shape or form.  One has to just think of what would be missing in his everyday life if there is no steel. Without steel the very existence of man would be prehistoric. Today the society is wholly dependent on steel and the steel is an indispensable part of the human existence. It adds to the quality of life, is essential to ensure the safety of water and food supply, provides energy efficiency, ensures warmth, transports energy, connects people all around the world and makes the lives of the people secure. One cannot imagine today what his life would be, if there is no steel.  Steel is environmentally sound and utterly reliable. Tried and tested yet always new and exciting, steel is everywhere, making the lives of people easier and livelier. Steel is the measure of progress of modern civilization. Steel began its ascent in the Iron Age and is now both visibly and invisibly omnipresent in everyone’s everyday life. Most household items contain steel and people entrust...