Flanges and Their Types...

Flanges and Their Types In a steel plant there are large numbers of pipe networks. These pipe networks use a large number of flanges. These flanges are made of carbon steel and alloy steel and are of various types, shapes and sizes. A pipe flange is a disc, collar or ring that attaches to pipe with the purpose of providing increased support for strength, blocking off a pipeline or implementing the attachment of more items. Flanges are piping components used for connecting pipes with other piping components like valves, specialties, instrument items like orifice, flow meters etc. They are also used to connect pipes with pumps and other equipment to form a pipework system. They facilitate the dismantling and periodic maintenance of piping components, pumps and equipment etc. They provide easy access for cleaning, inspection or modification. Flanges form semi-permanent connections to join parts which are light enough to be moved with available equipment or which cannot be welded due to heat sensitivity or replacement needs. They are usually welded or screwed into such systems and then joined with bolts. A flanged joint is composed of three separate and independent although interrelated components namely (i) the flanges, (ii) the gaskets, and (iii) the fasteners. Gasket is normally inserted between the two mating flanges to provide a tighter seal. There are numerous types of flanges available. The type and material of a flange to be used is dependent on the service duty of the line. Flanges are either custom built with dimensions provided by the customer or they are manufactured according to a specification as per various national and international standards.  Flanges of different standards are normally not interchangeable and hence are not usually joined. If necessary to do so, they are to be checked to ensure the...

Controlling – A Management Function...

Controlling – A Management Function Management function of controlling is the process whereby organization sets itself performance objectives and strives to achieve them as best it can over time. It is a method for managing the performance of the organization. It is the process oriented to verify the advancement status of the planned objectives as well as the efficacy and efficiency of the organization through the analysis of the resources, costs and proceeds. Controlling is one of the important functions of management. It pinpoints the deviations on the basis of which management can take corrective actions. Without the function of controlling, work done in the organization is not systematic and as per plans, since the inefficiencies remain undetected. For achieving the objectives and targets, it is necessary that the actual performance is assessed from time to time to ensure that what is being achieved is in conformity with the objectives and targets. This is done through the controlling function of the management. Thus, controlling as a function of management refers to the evaluation of actual performance of work against planned or standard performance and taking the corrective action, if necessary. Controlling function of the management is not to be seen as an activity of the exclusive competence of the administration area, but rather as a process which involves, at the appropriate levels of responsibilities of all the functions of the organization.  As with all processes, the controlling function is constituted by different elements which are connected to each other. These elements are (i) the structure (personnel charged of the duty of control), (ii) the tools (general accounting, data analysis, statistical analysis, budgeting, reporting), and (iii) the procedures (coordination, optimization). Different management experts have defined the function of controlling in the following way. “Control of...

Salamander Tapping for Capital Repairs of Blast Furnace Aug26

Salamander Tapping for Capital Repairs of Blast Furnace...

Salamander Tapping for Capital Repairs of Blast Furnace  A salamander means all liquid and solidified materials in the hearth of a blast furnace below the tap hole. The salamander includes liquid iron and slag and mixtures of solid iron, slag and coke/carbon. During the normal operation of the blast furnace, the furnace bottom and hearth contains the ‘dead-man’ and the salamander. When the blast furnace is to be relined, it is necessary that the furnace is emptied completely by removing all the constituents of the bottom and the hearth. It is also desirable to remove these constituents during partial relining of the furnace or during the repairs of the tap-hole. This provides safer working conditions during these partial repairs and prevents damage to the hearth refractories as a result of cyclic cooling and heating movements. The removal of all the constituents of the bottom and the hearth of the furnace is carried out usually by salamander tapping. The salamander tapping is usually done at preferably the lowest level where liquid iron can be expected in the blast furnace hearth. Salamander tapping of a blast furnace is the final tapping after the furnace is blown down in order to drain the last liquid iron from the furnace hearth. Because of its rare occurrence a salamander tapping represents in most of the steel plants a specialized job which requires a lot of preparation. A solidified salamander is normally difficult to remove especially if there is titanium in it. A large quantity of solid salamander can delay the critical path of the capital repairs of the blast furnace by a number of days or even by weeks. For the removal of the solidified salamander often requires oxygen lancing and even explosives. These types of removal also cause health and safety...

Pipe Fittings

Pipe Fittings In a steel plant there are large numbers of pipe networks. These pipe networks use a large number of pipe fittings. These pipe fittings are of various types, shapes and sizes. Pipe fittings allow pipes to be joined or installed in the appropriate place and terminated or closed wherever necessary. They can be expensive, require time, and different materials and tools to install. They are an essential part of piping systems. There are thousands of specialized fittings manufactured. Each type of pipe or tube requires its own type of fitting, but usually all pipe fittings share some common features. The basic purpose of using pipe fittings in pipe systems is to connect the bores of two or more pipes or tubes. Pipe fittings are used in piping systems normally (i) to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, (ii) to adapt to different sizes or shapes, (iii) to branch or re-direct the piping system, (iv) if necessary to provide a jointing method if two dissimilar piping materials are used in the one system, and (v) for other purposes, such as regulating, measuring or changing the direction of the fluid flow or to connect up threaded pipe and equipment. They are also used to close or seal a pipe. Fittings for pipe and tubing are most often made from the same base material as the pipe or tubing being connected, e.g., stainless steel, steel, copper or plastic. However, any material that is allowed by code may be used, but must be compatible with the other materials in the system, the fluids being transported, and the temperatures and pressures inside and outside of the system. Fittings (especially uncommon types) require money, time, materials, and tools to install, so they are not a trivial part of the...

Coordinating – A Management Function...

Coordinating – A Management Function  In every organization, different types of work are performed by various departments and work groups and no single department or work group on its own can be expected to achieve the goals of the organization as a whole. Hence, it becomes essential that the activities of different departments and work groups of the organization are harmonized. This function of management is known as ‘coordinating’ function. It ensures unity of action among individuals, work groups and departments, and brings harmony in carrying out the different activities and tasks so as to achieve the organizational goals efficiently. The concept of coordinating always applies to group efforts. There is no need for coordination when only single individual is working. In other words, coordinating function is the orderly arrangement of individual and group efforts to provide unity of action in the pursuit of a common goal. In an organization, all the departments must operate in an integrated manner so that the organizational goals are duly achieved. Coordinating function involves synchronization of different efforts of the various departments so that the planned objectives are achieved with minimum conflict. The significance of coordinating as a function of management mainly arises from the fact that work performed by different departments and groups form integral part of the total work for which the organization exists. Without harmonized effort or unity of action, achievement of goals in some departments may run counter to that of the other departments, or the timing of achievements may not match properly. The coordinating function of the management prevents overlapping and conflict so that the unity of action is achieved. Coordinating function of the management consists of inter-relating the various parts of the work as well as the work of different departments. It...