Sustainable Steel

 Sustainable Steel Sustainability, or sustainable development, is aimed at improving the quality of life for everyone, now and for generations to come. It encompasses environmental, economic and social dimensions, as well as the concept of stewardship, the responsible management of resource use. Steels are alloys based on iron. Depending on the desired properties – such as strength, ductility, and stiffness – a multitude of other elements can be present in small amounts. The variety of steels is not only defined by chemical composition, but also by a variety of micro structures on a nano and sub-nano scale. This leads to an impressive range of achievable properties and ensures that there is much scope to continue developing new, innovative, lightweight and high-strength steels. Steel’s combination of strength, recyclability, availability, versatility and affordability makes it a unique material. While the steel industry is energy and carbon intensive, significant progress has been made to reduce steelmaking impacts on the environment. Steel’s versatility and recyclability have also brought about countless innovative steel applications that, when seen from a product life cycle perspective, provide savings that neutralise and often far outweigh the initial material production impacts. Steel is everywhere in our lives and is at the heart of our sustainable future. It is at the core of a green economy, in which economic growth and environmental responsibility work hand in hand. The steel industry of present day promotes zero waste, reduces the amount of materials used, and encourages the reuse and recycling of materials, all fundamental advantages of using steel. This offers a markedly different approach and outcome to the “take, make, consume and dispose” economic model which the world has been used to. Present day steel industry believes that sustainable development must meet the needs of the present...

Functions of Management...

Functions of Management Management is the process of directing resources in an efficient and effective manner towards the accomplishment of the organizational objectives. It is described as a social process involving responsibility for economical and effective planning and regulation of operation of the organization for the fulfilment of the given purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. These activities are different from operative functions like marketing, finance, purchase etc. Rather these activities are common to each and every manger irrespective of his level or status. Various management experts have defined management. Some of the definitions of these experts are given below. “Management is the development of people and not the direction of things. Management is the personnel administration.” – Lawrence A. Apply “The art of getting things done through people”- Marry Parker Follet “Management is the art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organised groups.” – Horold Kanontz “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.” – Henry Fayol “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organising, activating and controlling to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.” – G.R. Terry “Management is simply the process of decision making and control over the action of human beings for the express purpose of attaining pre-determined goals.” – Stanley Vance Activity of the management is carried out for fulfilling its responsibilities for achievement of the organizational objectives by pursuing different functions of the management.  Different management experts have broken down, listed and explained these functions. The number of broken down functions by different management experts varies. Some have listed four, some have listed five and some even more than five.  However the...

Ultra Low Carbon Dioxide Steelmaking – ULCOS Jul26

Ultra Low Carbon Dioxide Steelmaking – ULCOS...

Ultra Low Carbon Dioxide Steelmaking – ULCOS  Climate change has been identified by the steel industry around the world as a major environmental challenge for more than two and a half decades. Long before the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007, major steel producers recognized that long term solutions were needed to tackle the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions produced during the production of steel. As a result, the steel industry has been highly proactive in improving energy consumption and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The greenhouse gas of most relevance to the world steel industry is carbon dioxide (CO2). As per World Steel Association (WSA), on average, 1.8 tons of CO2 gas are emitted for every ton of steel produced. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), in 2010 the iron and steel industry accounted for approximately 6.7 % of total world CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions per ton of crude steel produced are now around 50 % lower which has resulted into a dramatic reduction in climate impact for the steel sector. The best steel plants now operate close to the thermodynamics limits set by present steel production technologies. This in turn means that steel producers are limited in how much further they can improve their energy efficiency. With most major energy savings already achieved, additional large reductions in CO2 emissions are not possible using present technologies. Decreasing of the GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions further have meant introduction of breakthrough technologies. The reduction of CO2 emissions to the level that post-Kyoto policies have required ‘out of box’ thinking since it has raised specific challenges. No simple processes have been available off-the-shelf for the accomplishment of this objective. Deep paradigm shifts in the way steel is produced has to be imagined and...

Rolling Mill Guide Equipments...

Rolling Mill Guide Equipments In hot rolling mills for long products, guide equipments guide the rolling stock at the entry and the exit of the roll pass so as to have smooth rolling of the rolling stock. The guiding equipments are to be sturdy, accurate and stable. Rolling mill guide equipments play a major role in ensuring the surface quality of the rolled product. The guides are to be designed for the wide variety of stock sizes and shapes which are normally encountered in the long product rolling. The guide equipments are usually classified in three ways namely (i) position with respect to the working stand (e.g. entry guide and exit guide etc.), (ii) method of construction, and (iii) type of friction between the rolling stock and the working element of the guide equipment (e.g. sliding or rolling etc.). Sliding or static guides The entry and exit guides of sliding type are also known as static guides. The design of these guides is based on sliding friction. These guides are usually comprise of a guide box, two opposed blocks mounted in the guide box on opposite sides of the mill pass line and having longitudinally extending channels in their adjacent faces, separate metal plates bridging the respective channels and shaped to fit closely against the sides of the rolling stock traveling through the guide, and means to circulate water through the channels in contact with the outer surfaces of the plates. Static guides are robustly designed guides to withstand the demanding rolling mill environment. The design of the guides is to suite the specific roll pass requirement of the mill. Static guides usually feature a common guide holder so as to allow for reduced requirements of stock and spares. These guides can be adapted...

Managing Usage of Water in an Integrated Steel Plant...

Managing Usage of Water in an Integrated Steel Plant The important role that water plays in the production of iron and steel and also its value to the society is recognized by the steel plants. The assumption that fresh water is an inherently cheap commodity which is abundantly available and can be obtained with minimum of efforts is no more a valid assumption. The necessity of water conservation is increasing with each passing day. Hence it is necessary that steel plants take the management of the usage of water seriously and is to constantly evaluate how best to use water, finding improvements both in conservation and reuse. The extent of recycling of water which the steel plants are presently carrying out is varying very widely. While some plants are carrying out recycling of water to the extent of 98 % while in some other plant water is being used in many places in the plant by utilizing once through systems. In these plant the water discharged from the plant is very high. Water intake is more subject to control than is gross water use, being determined primarily by the extent of reuse. The lower limit for intake is the consumptive use of a plant, and the upper limit is the gross use. Both limits have been reached in the steel plants. In integrated plants, intake ranged from 5 cum per ton to 250 cum per ton of crude steel. Water can be reused and recycled. Hence any improvement in the efficiency of its usage as well as the reduction in its demand has an effect on the cost of production of steel. By increasing water recycling and cascading water use from higher to lower quality, integrated steel plants have been able to reduce their...