Process Management

Process Management  Process management is a concept which is based on the observation that each product that an organization provides to the market is the outcome of a number of activities performed. Processes are the key instrument for the  organization of these activities and for improving the understanding of their interrelationships. The organization can reach its goals and objectives in an efficient and effective manner only if people and other organizational resources play together well. Processes are an important concept for facilitating this effective collaboration. Process can be defined as a set of horizontal sequence of interrelated or interacting activities, which transforms inputs (needs) into outputs (results) for meeting the needs of customers or stakeholders. Inputs and intended outputs of a process can be tangible (such as equipment, materials or components) or intangible (such as energy or information). Outputs can also be unintended, such as waste or pollution.  Each process has customers and other interested parties (who may be either internal or external to the organization), with needs and expectations about the process, who define the required outputs of the process. Process activities require allocation of resources such as people and materials. Processes are strategic, operational and supportive. Process components are sub process, activity and task. Processes  have owner and team members. Processes are considered to be a generic factor in the organization. They are the way things get done. they are also viewed as strategic assets, which require the organization to take a process orientation. A major advantage of the process approach, when compared to other approaches, is in the management and control of the interactions between these processes and the interfaces between the functional hierarchies of the organization. Common examples of processes include new product development, order fulfillment, and customer service; less...

Understanding Coke Making in Byproduct Coke Oven Battery Mar09

Understanding Coke Making in Byproduct Coke Oven Battery...

Understanding Coke Making in Byproduct Coke Oven Battery  Coke is one of the basic materials used in blast furnaces for the conversion of iron ore into hot metal (liquid iron), most of which is subsequently processed into steel. The major portion of coke produced is used for the production of hot metal. Coke is also used by a number of other industries, namely iron foundries, nonferrous smelters, and chemical plants. It is also used in steel making as a carburizing material. Coke and coke by-products, including coke oven gas, are produced by the pyrolysis (heating in the absence of air) of suitable grades of coal. The process also includes the processing of coke oven gas to remove tar,  ammonia (usually recovered as ammonium sulphate), phenol, naphthalene, light oil, and sulphl, and sulfs under links n of coal)  period.e doorg nitrogen gas is used for the production of steam and then power.ur before the gas is used as fuel for heating the ovens. The coke making industry consists of two sectors, integrated plants and merchant plants. Integrated plants are owned by or affiliated with iron-and steel producing plants who produce blast furnace coke primarily for consumption in their own blast furnaces. Independent merchant plants produce furnace and/or foundry coke for sale in the open market. These plants sell most of their products to other plants engaged in blast furnace, foundry, and nonferrous smelting operations. A good quality coke is generally made from carbonization of good quality coking coal. Coking coals are defined as those coals that on carbonization pass through softening, swelling, and re-solidification to coke. One important consideration in selecting a coal blend is that it should not exert a high coke oven wall pressure and should contract sufficiently to allow the coke to...

Insulation Refractory Bricks...

Insulation Refractory Bricks  Insulating refractory brick (IRB) is the term used for heat insulating bricks and  covers those heat insulating materials which are applied up to 1000 deg C. IRBs are often mistakenly referred to as rear insulation materials. These bricks are assigned to the group of lightweight refractory bricks and are manufactured on the basis of naturally occurring lightweight raw materials. IRB is a class of brick, which consists of highly porous fireclay or kaolin. IRBs are lightweight, low in thermal conductivity, and yet sufficiently resistant to temperature to be used successfully on the hot side of the furnace wall, thus permitting thin walls of low thermal conductivity and low heat content. The low heat content is particularly important in saving fuel and time on heating up, allows rapid changes in temperature to be made, and permits rapid cooling. IRB is characterized by the presence of large amount of porosity in it. The pores are mostly closed pores. The presence of porosity decreases the thermal conductivity of the insulating bricks. IRBs  were developed in the 1930s, and they were the predominant form of insulation until the development of insulating castable and fiber refractories. There are two types of bricks namely (i) bricks based on clay and gypsum using the burnout of sawdust to create high porosity (and thereby provide better insulating value), and (ii) bricks based on lightweight aggregate and clays. Like all alumina-silica brick, IRBs have a duty rating (service limit). Over the years, IRBs have been made in a variety of ways, such as mixing of organic matter with clay and later burning it out to form pores; or a bubble structure incorporated in the clay-water mixture which is later preserved in the fired brick. IRBs are characterized by the presence...

Stakeholder Management...

Stakeholder Management  Stakeholders refer to those people and groups who have a stake in some aspect of the organizational products, operations, markets, industry, or outcomes. Stake is an interest or a share in an undertaking and can be categorized as legal or moral. The stakeholders of an organization are the individuals, groups, or other organizations that are affected by and also affect the decisions and actions of the organization. Depending on the specific organization, stakeholders may include governmental agencies, statutory bodies, social activist groups, self regulatory organizations, employees, shareholders, customers, suppliers, distributors, media and even the community in which the organization is located among many others. An organization exists because of its ability to create valued goods and services and which yield acceptable outcomes for various groups of stakeholders, people who have an interest, claim, or stake in the organization, in what it does, and in how well it performs. In general, stakeholders are motivated to participate in an organization if they receive inducements that exceed the value of the contributions they are required to make. Inducements are rewards such as money, power, the support of beliefs or values, and organizational status. Contributions are the skills, knowledge, and expertise that the organization requires from the stakeholders during its task performance. Stakeholders can be categorized into two groups namely (i) primary stakeholders, and (ii) secondary stakeholders. Primary stakeholders have direct stake in the organization and its success. They are fundamental to its operations and survival.  These stakeholders include shareholders and investors, employees, customers, suppliers, and public stakeholders, such as government and the community. Secondary stakeholders influence and/or are affected by the organization but are neither engaged in transactions with the organization nor essential for its survival. These stakeholders are those that have a public or special...

Understanding Steel Making Operations  in Basic Oxygen Furnace Mar02

Understanding Steel Making Operations in Basic Oxygen Furnace...

Understanding Steel Making Operations  in Basic Oxygen Furnace  Steel making operation in the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) is also sometimes called basic oxygen steel making (BOS). This is the most powerful and effective steel making technology in the world. Around 71 % of the crude steel is made by this process. BOF process was developed in Austria in the early 1950s at the two Austrian steelworks at Linz and Donawitz and hence the BOF process is also called LD (first letters of the two cities) steel making. There exist several variations on the BOF process. The main are top blowing, bottom blowing, and a combination of the two which is known as combined blowing. The BOF process is autogenous, or self sufficient in energy, converts liquid iron (hot metal) into steel using gaseous oxygen (O2) to oxidize the unwanted impurities in hot metal (HM). The O2 used must be of high purity, usually 99.5% minimum, otherwise the steel may absorb harmful nitrogen (N2). The primary raw materials for the BOF are generally HM (around 80 % or more) from the blast furnace and the remaining steel scrap. These are charged into the BOF vessel. O2 is blown into the BOF at supersonic velocities. It oxidizes the carbon (C) and silicon (Si) contained in the HM liberating great quantities of heat which melts the scrap. There are lesser energy contributions from the oxidation of iron(Fe), manganese (Mn), and phosphorus (P). The flux used in this process is primarily calcined lime ( with CaO content of more than 92 %). This lime is produced by the calcining of limestone with low silica (SiO2) content. The post combustion of carbon monoxide (CO) as it exits the converter also transmits heat back to the bath. The product of...