Delegation of Power

Delegation of Power  Delegation of power (DOP) is also known as ‘Delegation of Authority’ (DOA). It is one of the vital processes for any organization. It is inevitable along with the expansion and growth of the organization. Delegation means assigning of certain responsibilities along with the necessary authority by the management of the organization to the employees. Delegation does not mean surrender of authority by the management. It only means transfer of certain responsibilities to the employees and giving them the required authority, which is necessary for the discharge of the responsibility properly. DOP is defined in many ways. Some of the definitions are given below. “Delegation means assigning work to the others and giving them authority to do so” “Delegation takes place when one person gives another the right to perform work on his behalf and in his name and the second person accepts a corresponding duty or obligation to do that is required of him. “Delegation is the dynamics of management, it is the process a manager follows in dividing the work assigned to him so that he performs that part which only he, because of his unique organizational placement, can perform effectively, and so that he can get others to help him with what remains. “Delegation is the assignment of responsibility or authority to another person (normally from a manager to a subordinate) to carry out specific activities. It is one of the core concepts of management leadership.” “Delegation of authority can be defined as subdivision and sub-allocation of powers to the subordinates in order to achieve effective results.”  Characteristics of delegation of power The following are the characteristics of DOP. It involves transfer not surrendering of authority. It is a process of sharing work, granting authority and creating accountability. Delegation takes...

Granulation of Liquid Iron Oct15

Granulation of Liquid Iron...

Granulation of Liquid Iron Granulation of liquid iron is a method of handling of excess production of hot metal in a blast furnace (BF)  which cannot be consumed by steel making in the steel melting shop of an integrated iron and steel plant. It is a cost effective method of producing a solid product which is known as granulated iron (GI). GI has good chemical and physical properties like pig iron and can be used as a prime raw material for the purpose of steel making. GI has a chemical composition identical to the liquid iron which is being granulated. There is no oxidation or slag entrapment in the GI and there is high metallic content. Fig 1 shows some pieces of GI. Fig 1 Granulated iron  A GI plant takes care of any mismatch between the production at the iron making facilities and the requirement of liquid iron at the steel making facilities. It is logistically positioned in between the two facilities. Excess liquid iron from the BF is diverted to the GI plant for the production of GI. This eliminates reduction of hot blast volume at the BF while producing GI which can be used as internal feedstock as coolant in the BOF, or for external sales to be used by the cupolas, induction furnaces (IF) and electric arc furnaces (EAF). GI plants can be constructed and operated with capacities matching with the BF outputs. They are alternative to the pig casting machines (PCM) but with considerable higher capacities. The capacities of even twin strand PCMs are limited due to the solidification time of the liquid iron in the pig moulds. The PCMs also requires frequent mechanical maintenance as a consequence of the complex design. The GI has identical properties to that...

Chromium in Steels

Chromium in Steels  Chromium (Cr) (atomic number 24 and atomic weight 52.01) has density of 7.1 gm/cc. Melting point of Cr is 1850 deg C and boiling point is 2680 deg C. The phase diagram of the Fe-Cr binary system is at Fig 1.  Cr has got a body centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure.   Fig 1 Fe-Cr phase diagram Around 85 % of the chromite (chrome ore) mined is used in metallurgical application, namely stainless steels, low alloy steels, high strength alloy steels, tool steels, some maraging steels (high strength alloy steels of the precipitation hardening type), and high performance alloys such as chromium-cobalt- tungsten (or molybdenum) alloys, nickel-chromium-manganese-niobium-tantalum (or titanium) alloys, nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys, and cobalt-chromium alloys. Cr is the most versatile and widely used element in alloying of steel. It is a key component of stainless steels. Around 70 % of Cr used in steelmaking goes into the production of stainless steels. Consumption of Cr in the constructional alloy steels comes next. Most of the constructional alloy steels contain Cr less than 3 %. Tool steels, super alloys and other specialty steels, though have higher in Cr content account for lower consumption of Cr since these steels are produced in smaller quantities. Addition practice during steel making Cr in the steel comes either from Cr containing scrap or from ferrochrome (Fe- Cr) during the production of Cr alloyed steels. Fe-Cr used in steel making are commercially available in several grades . The main impurities in Fe-Cr are carbon (C) and silicon (Si). Low C grades are costlier than the high C grades. The widespread shift toward duplex refining practices such as the AOD, CLU, etc., for the production of stainless steels has resulted into the increased use of high carbon Fe-Cr. Low...

Quality Assurance and Quality Control...

Quality Assurance and Quality Control  In present day environment, ‘Quality’ is the focus area for the management of every organization for achieving the success. Quality plays a substantial role on the bottom line of the organization. Two terms related to quality that are frequently being used in the Total Quality Management (TQM) and different quality related standards such as ISO 9001 etc. are ‘Quality Assurance’ (QA) and ‘Quality Control’ (QC). Both QA and QC are the part of one circle under quality management techniques. QA concentrates on defect prevention while QC deals with the detection. This is shown in Fig 1. Fig 1 Circle of QA and QC  The terms of QA and QC are closely related to each other. Both the terms also have the same objectives.  In fact both QA and QC complement each other. They are so interlinked and inter-dependent that many persons find it difficult to distinguish them. QA is process oriented and focuses on defect prevention, while QC is product oriented and focuses on defect identification. There exists a lot of confusion in many organizations with respect to these two terms and the activities associated with them. The intended purpose of both QA and QC is to make the product defect free and ensure that it conforms to the requirements of product specifications. In fact both of these terms have got common objective. However the approach to achieve the objective is different. The route followed by both is also different for achievement of the objective. QA still has QC at its core to control the quality of service/product, but it goes beyond mere testing or inspection to also consider related activities or processes (such as training, document control and audits) that may be resulting in defects further down the line. Both QA and QC are essential for an...

Cold Rolling of Steels Oct08

Cold Rolling of Steels...

Cold Rolling of Steels  The primary purpose of cold rolling of steels is to reduce the thickness of the hot rolled steel strips (normally in the range of 1.5 mm to 5 mm) into thinner thicknesses (usually in the range of 0.12 mm to 2.5 mm) which cannot be normally achieved during hot rolling in a hot strip mill. Besides reduction in thickness cold rolling is done for improving the surface finish of steels, for improving the thickness tolerances, for offering a range of ‘tempers’, for improving the physical characteristics, and for preparing the strip for surface coating. Cold rolling makes the cold rolled sheets a much improved product. Cold rolled steel products offer good control of thickness, shape, width, surface finish, and other special quality features that compliment the need for highly engineered end user applications.  To meet the various end user requirements, cold rolled sheets are metallurgically designed to provide specific attributes such as high formability, deep drawability, high strength, high dent resistance, good magnetic properties, weldability, enamelability, and paintability etc. Cold rolling of hot rolled steel strips is done below the recrystallization temperature normally at room temperature. In cold rolling process, usually no heat is applied to the hot rolled strip before rolling.  However, frictional energy at the contact surfaces of the strip being rolled gets converted into heat. This heat may increase temperature of the strip being rolled in rapid adiabatic process to a level of 50 deg C to around 250 deg C. During cold rolling process the reduction in thickness is due to the plastic deformation which occurs by means of dislocation movement. Steel gets hardened because of the buildup of these dislocations. This increases strength and strain hardening upto 20 %. These dislocations reduce the ductility of the...