Organizational Learning...

Organizational Learning  An organization must learn so that it can adapt to a changing environment. Historically, the life cycle of organizations typically spanned stable environments between major socioeconomic changes. Many Fortune 500 companies of two decades ago no longer exist. The ever accelerating rate of global scale change has made the organizational learning very critical and its adaptation by organizations has become very relevant for the success, and ultimate survival of the organization. Organizational learning is based on applying knowledge for a purpose and learning from the process and from the outcome. It is the process of detection and correction of errors. The organization learns through its employees whose learning activities are facilitated by an environment in the organization that may be called an organizational learning system. Organizations learn only through individuals who learn. However, individual learning does not guarantee organizational learning. But without it there is no organizational learning. The concept of organizational learning has been borrowed and developed from the individual learning process which is normally believed to be a very sophisticated process and involves all aspects of the human nature and the interaction with the environment. Understanding the individual learning process is a good starting point to understand organizational learning, but it does not provide the entire picture. Organization is in a more complicated context than an individual to the environment. Organizational learning is not simply the collectivity of individual learning processes, but engages interaction between individuals in the organization and with the organization, interaction between organizations as an entity, and interaction between the organization and its contexts. The history of organizational learning dates back to early 1950s when this concept was mentioned in reference to the birth and death of public administrations. During early 1960s, researchers became attracted by the...

Colour Coating of Steels Sep14

Colour Coating of Steels...

Colour Coating of Steels  Colour coating is a term used to describe the application of a decorative and/or protective organic coating to steel substrate supplied in coil form. Colour coated steel is also called as pre-painted steel. Colour coatings are paint coatings and are specialty products, which are used to give the steel a long term protection under a broad range of corrosive conditions, extending from atmospheric exposure to full immersion in strongly corrosive solutions. A colour coating provides little strength to the substrate steel, yet it protects the steel so that its strength and integrity can be maintained. Colour coating of steel is a continuous and highly automated industrial process for efficiently coating of coils of steel. In this process of application of colour coating, the substrate steel gets protective and decorative coating. This process of colour coating is also called a duplex coating. The process of colour coating of steel according to EN 10169:2010 is a ‘process in which an organic coating material is applied on rolled metal strip in a continuous process which includes cleaning, if necessary, and chemical pre-treatment of the metal surface and either one side or two side, single or multiple application of (liquid) paints or coating powders which are subsequently cured or / and laminating with permanent plastic films’. The first colour coating line was started in Europe during 1940s. It became immediately very popular due to its basic inherent advantages which are given below. Higher productivity A highly sophisticated and computerized controlled coating application Environmental benefits and energy saving More consistent properties of the coated sheets Lesser wastage of coating material Colour coating usually refers to the application of liquid paint coat over the substrate in an automatic, continuous process after pre-treatment. The pre-painted colour coated steel is a...

Aluminum in Steels

Aluminum in Steels  Aluminum (Al) is used for deoxidizing and grain refining in steels. It is a strong deoxidizer. It is also used as nitride former and as an alloying agent. Its ability to scavenge nitrogen (N) from steel makes it a useful addition in drawing quality steels, especially for automotive applications. Aluminum (Al) is being used as a deoxidizing element in steels for more than 100 years. Deoxidation of steel with Al is common practice today. Al plays an important role in secondary metallurgy. It forms aluminum oxide or alumina (Al2O3) alumina and decreases the amount of oxygen in the steel during the production of killed steels. Metallic Al is the most common addition agent. It is usually done in the form of notched bars, shots, pigs, small ingots, chopped wire, briquettes and other convenient forms such as coiled machine fed wire. Purity of deoxidation grade of Al is normally over 95 % with the main tramp elements being zinc, tin, copper, magnesium, lead and manganese. Coiled aluminum wire is usually made to 99 % minimum specification. A wire feeding machine is shown in Fig 1. Fig 1 Wire feeding machine Al is also added as ferro-aluminum which is a dense and highly efficient form of aluminum addition. Ferro-aluminum contains 30 % to 40 % Al and normally added in lump form. Al may be added to the steel making furnace, teeming ladle, Ladle furnace, continuous casting tundish or ingot mould. Each type of addition has its specific purpose, and each addition produces its own characteristic results. Al is a very powerful deoxidizer, but has a disadvantage because of its low density. The density of liquid aluminum at steelmaking temperatures (1600 deg C) is about 2.0 tons/cum while the density of steel at...

Organizational Ethics and Management...

Organizational Ethics and Management  Ethics refers to the principles, rules and standards of moral behaviour that are accepted by society as right or wrong. It tells the difference between the right and wrong. It guides the employees of the organization to decide on the best course of action in situations where it is difficult to make the right choice, or at least the best choice from among competing alternatives. Organizational ethics is also known as corporate or business ethics. It is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that examines ethical principles and morals or ethical problems that arise in an organizational environment. It applies to all aspects of organizational conduct and is relevant to the conduct of its management and employees as well as the organization as a whole. It can be both a normative and a descriptive discipline. The range and quantity of ethical issues reflects the degree to which organizational working is perceived to be at odds with non economic social values. Organizational ethics lay emphasis on commitment of the organization in promoting non economic social values. They are tied to the ethics of the society as well as the ethics of the individuals who work for, and buy products from, the organization. Ethics is not a recent phenomenon. Ethical codes have been prepared along with the development of human civilization. The word ethics is derived from the Greek word ‘Ethikos’ and Latin word ‘Ethicus’. The word means custom, norm, ideal, or character. In the words of Peter.F.Drucker, ‘Ethics deals with right actions of individuals’. The term ‘business ethics’ came into common use in the USA in the early 1970s. Organizations started highlighting their ethical stature in the late 1980s and early 1990s, possibly trying to distance themselves from the business scandals of the...

Energy Efficiency and Iron and Steel Production Sep09

Energy Efficiency and Iron and Steel Production...

Energy Efficiency and Iron and Steel Production  In the recent years, the need for a more rational and efficient use of energy has emerged as a strategic and urgent issue. Such a necessity is particularly perceived in the iron and steel production, not only because of the increasing costs of energy, but also as a consequence of the competition, which stresses some features of the process and its final products (e.g. cost and quality). Also, the rational use of the energy resource may be regarded as a twofold issue, a first aspect being related to the achieved consciousness of the limited availability of energy, regarded as a source, and the second being represented by a mature appreciation of the costs born to procure energy. Globally, ever increasing consumption of energy has gone hand in hand with rising concerns about its conservation. Apart from being expensive and prone to sudden price fluctuations, the overwhelming majority of energy sources are non renewable. Therefore, the conservation of energy is considered vital not just to avoid wastage of a precious resource, but also to slow down the rapid depletion of coal, oil, and natural gas resources. However, with the environmental movement gaining ground in the past 30 years, the ramifications of unsustainable energy use are no longer confined to economics alone. As the bulk of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a result of fossil fuel burning, conservation of energy is today intrinsically linked to the climate question. As halting fossil fuel use is not an option without the viability of alternative sources, the only way to reduce energy use and manage emissions is therefore to maximize its efficiency. Since the iron and steel industry presents one of the most energy intensive sectors within the economy of any country,...