Free Cutting Steels

Free Cutting Steels Free cutting steels also known as free machining steels are those steels which form small chips when machined. This increases the machinability of the material by breaking the chips into small pieces, thus avoiding their entanglement in the machinery. This enables automatic run of the equipment without human interaction. Free cutting steels with lead also allow for higher machining rates. As a thumb rule, free cutting steel normally costs 15 % to 20 % more than the standard steel. However this is made up by increased machining speeds, larger cuts, and longer tool life. The cutting (machining) operation is shown in Fig 1. Fig 1 Cutting operation In turning, milling and drilling operations commonly known as machining operations, deformation/welding of the tool/work piece interface occurs rather than chip formation. During the machining operations surface finish is impaired, cutting temperature increased and tool life reduced significantly. A large ‘built-up edge’ is formed on the tool tip at very low sulfur contents. This requires frequent dressing or changing of tools, reduced productivity and higher costs. The term machinability is characterized by the following three parameters. Speed of machining Surface finish of the machined components Tool life of the cutting tools employed for machining operation. The term machinability relates to the ease and cost of achieving a production schedule for machined parts. It deals with consistent production of machined components which are able to satisfy product property specifications and in service performance requirements, at minimum through cost. Machinability can be measured in terms of surface finish, chip form, tool life, power consumption, and production rate. Machinability is not a unique material property like tensile strength, since it depends on the criterion selected, the type of cutting tool, cutting operation, cutting conditions and the machine tool...

Customer Relationship Management...

Customer Relationship Management If an organization cannot meet the expectations of its customers then it will struggle to survive. Ideally the organization should exceed the expectations to maximize the customer satisfaction level of its customers, and also the credibility of its products and services in the eyes of its customers. Customers usually become delighted when the organization under promises and over delivers. Over promise and under delivery results into the customers becoming unsatisfied. Customer relation management (CRM) is the prescription to keep the customers happy and satisfied. CRM is an essential part of modern business management. It is that part of the system in the organization which deals with the relationship between the organization and its customers. It is the set of those processes which manages organization’s interactions with current and future customers. CRM entails all aspects of the interaction that the organization must have with its customer, whether it is sales, marketing, feedback or customer service related, and technical support.  These four main components of the CRM is shown in Fig 1. Fig 1 Main component of CRM Customers are the lifeline of any organization, be it a large multinational corporation with several thousands of employees, with multi location and with a multibillion turnover, or a small scale industry with a few employees and a small number of customers. CRM involves using technology to organize, automate, and synchronize sales, marketing, customer service, and technical support. The processes of the CRM are related to the principles, practices, and guidelines that the organization follows when interacting with its customers. Efficient customer relationships are at the heart of business success. From the organization’s point of view, this entire relationship not only encompasses the direct interaction aspect, such as sales and/or service related processes, but also in the...

Rolling Process for Steel Mar27

Rolling Process for Steel...

Rolling Process for Steel Rolling is the process of plastically deforming steel by passing it between rolls. Rolling is defined as the reduction of the cross sectional area of the steel piece being rolled, or the general shaping of the steel products, through the use of the rotating rolls. Rolling of steel is one of the most important manufacturing processes for steel. It is usually the first step in the processing of steel after it is made and cast either in Ingot or continuous cast product in a steel melting shop. The initial rolling of steel is done in a hot rolling mill where blooms and slabs are rolled down to various rolled products such as plate, sheet, strip, coil, billet, structures, rails, bars and rods. Cold rolling of steel is also carried out for some products. Many of these rolled products such as rails and reinforcement bars etc. are directly used by the consumers while the other rolled products are the starting raw materials for subsequent manufacturing operations such as forging, sheet metal working, wire drawing, extrusion, machining, and fabrication industry. Steel rolling can produce a wide range of products. The width of a rolled product can vary from a few millimeters to several meters while the thickness can vary from 0.1 mm to more than 200 mm. The rolled section can be square, rectangular, round or shaped sections. Different rolling processes for steel are shown in Fig 1 Fig 1 Rolling processes of steels Principle of rolling steel During rolling, steel work piece is subjected to high compressive stresses as a result of the friction between the rolls and the surface of work piece being rolled. The work piece is plastically deformed by the compressive forces between two constantly rotating rolls. These...

Microstructures of Iron and Steels...

Microstructures of Iron and Steels The microstructures of iron and steels is complicated and diverse which is influenced by composition, homogeneity, heat treatment, processing and section size. Microstructure of castings looks different than those of the wrought products even if the composition is same and even if the same heat treatment is given. Pure iron is polymorphic. Two allotropic phases exist for pure iron in solid state depending on the temperature. One is bcc (body centered cubic) and the other is fcc (face centered cubic). The bcc crystalline form (?-iron) is stable until a temperature of 912 deg C when it is transformed to fcc (?-iron). The ?-iron remains stable until 1394 deg C, and then it reverts to bcc structure (?-iron). ?-iron is stable until the melting point of 1538 deg C. High purity iron is very weak. The ability of iron to accommodate heavy interstitials, namely carbon and nitrogen, is mostly responsible for the strength and the hardening effects. Ferrite ?- iron refers only to the bcc form of pure iron that is stable below 912 deg C. Ferrite is a solid solution of one or more elements in bcc iron. The carbon solubility of ferrite depends on the temperature: the maximum being 0.02 % at 723 deg C. Ferrite may precipitate from austenite in acicular form with certain cooling conditions. Ferrite is a very soft, ductile phase, although it loses its toughness below some critical temperature. ?-ferrite is magnetic below 768 deg C. Austenite ? – iron refers to fcc form of pure iron that is stable between 912 deg C and 1394 deg C. Austenite is a solid solution of one or more elements in fcc iron. Austenite is stable above 723 deg C depending upon C content. It can...

Change Management

Change Management In a fast changing world, it is necessary for an organization to keep pace with the changes if it has to remain competitive. Adoption of change is needed not only for the success of the organization but it is also needed even for its survival. Organizational change occurs when the organization makes a transition from its current state to some desired state needed due to change in its operating environment. Change can take place either due to the external pressures or due to the internal reasons. It can be affected either in a planned manner or in unplanned manner. It can be implemented either at the organizational level or a departmental level or even at an individual level. Changes in the organization can take place in the several forms. It can be in the form of technological changes due to the adoption of newer technology. It can be in the form of change of management structure or management style. It can be in the form of restructuring of the organization. It can take place due to the change in the vision, mission and objectives of the organization. It can be in the form of streamlining of systems and procedures to make them more effective. It can be in the form of effecting changes in the employee’s attitude and behaviours in order to increase their efficiency and effectiveness. There are five basic stages which an organization has to undergo while making a strategic change. These are given below. Realizing that the current strategy is no longer suitable for the situation in which the organization operates. Identifying and agreeing where change is necessary. Establishing a vision for the future direction of the organization. This vision is to be shared across the whole organization and...