Basics of Steam Boiler Feb22

Basics of Steam Boiler...

Basics of Steam Boiler A steam boiler is an enclosed container where water is heated under controlled conditions to convert it into steam. Boiler is basically a heat exchanger where heat is transferred to water. It is also sometimes referred to steam generator. Thermal energy for heating water is supplied either by fuel (Gas, liquid or solid) or by waste energy available from various industrial processes. Sometimes solar energy is also used for the production of steam. Steam produced in a boiler can be low pressure, medium pressure or high pressure.  In an industrial context, the steam produced is used as process steam in various industrial processes or for driving turbines for the production of electricity. Every boiler is designed to transfer as much thermal energy as possible to the water contained in the boiler. Heat energy is transferred by conduction, convection and radiation. The relative percentage of each is dependent upon the type of boiler, the designed heat transfer surface and the fuels that power the combustion. There are mainly two types of boilers. They are fire tube boiler and water tube boiler. Fire tube boiler consists of numbers of tubes through which hot gasses are passed. These hot gas tubes are immersed into water, in a closed vessel. In this boiler one closed vessel or shell contains water, through which hot gas tubes are passed. These hot gas tubes heat up the water and convert the water into steam and the steam remains in same vessel.  Fire tube boilers are generally used for relatively small steam capacities and low to medium steam pressures. These boilers are compact, of packaged construction and cheaper. Water tube boiler is a kind of boiler where the water is heated inside tubes and the hot gasses surround...

Terms and Standards used for Mineral Deposits Classification...

Terms and Standards used for Mineral Deposits Classification The terms and standards used for the classifications of mineral deposits are described below. Competence – It requires that the Public Report be based on work that is the responsibility of suitably qualified and experienced persons who are subject to an enforceable professional code of ethics (the Competent Person). Competent Person – A Competent Person is a mineral industry professional, defined as a corporate member, registrant or licensee of a recognized professional body (including mutually recognized international professional organizations) with enforceable disciplinary processes including the powers to suspend or expel a member. A competent person must have a minimum of five years relevant experience in the style of mineralization or type of deposit under consideration and in the activity which that person is undertaking. Recognized Professional Organizations (RPO) and classes of membership under the standard, which meet these requirements, are listed in the standards or on their websites. If the Competent Person is preparing documentation on Exploration Results, the relevant experience must be in exploration. If the Competent Person is estimating, or supervising the estimation of Mineral Resources, the relevant experience must be in estimation, assessment, and evaluation of Mineral Resources. If the Competent Person is estimating or supervising the estimation of Ore Reserves, the relevant experience must be in the estimation, assessment, evaluation and economic extraction of Ore Reserves. CRIRSCO – CRIRSCO provides an international forum that enables countries to ensure consistency of their reporting standards.  It is an international advisory body without legal authority and relies on its constituent members to ensure regulatory and disciplinary actions at a National level. It was formed in 1994 under the auspices of the Council of Mining and Metallurgical Institutes (CMMI). It was established as grouping of representatives...

Human Resource Development...

Human Resource Development Human resource is needed to be developed to suit the change in the external environment of an organization. Human resource development (HRD) helps to adapt such changes through the development of existing human resource in terms of skills, knowledge and the capacity to perform. It represents the capability enhancement of human resource within an organization through the development of both the employee and the organization. The capacity of the employees depends on their access to education. HRD is the integrated use of training, organization, and career development efforts to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness. HRD develops the key competencies that enable employees of an organization to perform current and future requirement of the assignments and/or jobs through planned learning activities. HRD is also used to initiate and manage change.  It also ensures a match between the needs of the employees and the organization. HRD is a function in an organization that provides opportunities for an individual employee to improve current and future job performance, while simultaneously best utilizing human capital in order to improve the efficiency of the organization itself. Ideally, well developed and well implemented HRD systems are integral to the organization’s strategic plan and benefit both the employee and the organization. HRD activities of an organization are shown in Fig 1. Fig 1 HRD activities of an organization The importance of HRD is obvious in an organization when one considers that in any activity of an organization it is the human element that commands, directs, organizes, controls and maximizes the factors which influences the performance. The quality of people appropriate to a particular level and complexities of the activity determines how well or poorly, the tasks are accomplished. With the rise of learning society and lifelong learning during the second...

Wind Power Feb14

Wind Power

Wind Power Wind is a form of solar energy. Winds are caused by the uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the irregularities of the earth’s surface, and rotation of the earth. Wind flow patterns are modified by the earth’s terrain, bodies of water, and vegetative cover. Wind energy is the kinetic energy of air in motion. This wind energy can be harvested. Wind power is the conversion of this wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as electrical power by using wind turbines, mechanical power by using wind mills, pumping or drainage of water by wind pumps and as sails to propel ships. Wind energy is a renewable or non-conventional source of energy. This is clean and non polluting energy source. It is available in large amounts in many parts of the world. It does not generate any greenhouse gasses during the production of electricity. The total amount of economically extractable power available from the wind is very high.  Axel Kleidon of the Max Planck Institute in Germany carried out a ‘top down’ calculation on how much wind energy there is, starting with the incoming solar radiation that drives the winds by creating temperature differences in the atmosphere. He concluded that somewhere between 18 TW and 68 TW (Terawatt which is one trillion watts) could be extracted. Cristina Archer and Mark Z. Jacobson presented a ‘bottom-up’ estimate based on actual measurements of wind speeds. As per this estimate there is 1700 TW of wind power available at an altitude of 100 meters over land and sea. Out of this available power, between 72 and 170 TW could be extracted in a practical and cost competitive manner. They later estimated it to be 80 TW. However research at Harvard university estimates 1 Watt/Sq m on an average and...

Tool Steels

Tool Steels The term tool steel is a generic description for those steels which have been developed specifically for tooling applications. These steels are used for making tools, punches and dies etc. Tools used for working steels and other metals must be stronger and harder than the steels or the materials they cut or form. Normally tool steels are known for their distinctive toughness, resistance to abrasion, their ability to hold a cutting edge, and/or their resistance to deformation at elevated temperatures (red hardness). Some of the operations that tool steels are used for include drawing, blanking, mould inserts, stamping, metal slitting, forming and embossing, although their use is not limited to just these areas. The metallurgical characteristics of various compositions of tool steels are extremely complex. There are hundreds of different types of tool steels available and each may have a specific composition and end use. Tool steels are mainly medium to high carbon steels with specific alloying elements added in different amounts to provide it special characteristics. The carbon in the tool steel is provided to help harden the steel to greater hardness for cutting and wear resistance while alloying elements are added to the tool steel for providing it greater toughness or strength. In some cases, alloying elements are added to retain the size and shape of the tool during its heat treat hardening operation or to make the hardening operation safer and to provide red hardness to it so that the tool retains its hardness and strength when it becomes extremely hot. Various alloying elements in addition to carbon are chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), tungsten (W), and vanadium (V). The effect of the alloying elements on the properties of tool steels is as follows. Chromium –...