Iron ore pellets

Iron ore pellets Iron ore pellet is a type of agglomerated iron ore fines which has better tumbler index when compared with that of parent iron ore and can be used as a substitute of lump ore for the production of direct reduced iron (DRI) and in blast furnaces for the production of hot metal. The term iron ore pellets refers to the thermally agglomerated substance formed by heating a variable mixture of iron ore, limestone, olivine, bentonite, dolomite and miscellaneous iron bearing materials in the range of 1250 deg C to 1350 deg C. Iron ore pellets are normally produced in two types of grades namely DRI grade and BF grade. BF grade pellets have higher basicity than the DRI grade. The general identification details of iron ore pellets are given Tab 1. Tab 1 Identification details of Iron ore pellets Chemical name Iron ores, agglomerates Other names Iron ore pellets, iron oxide pellets CAS No. 65996-65-8 EINECS No. 265-996-3 Molecular formula Fe2O3 Molecular weight (gram/mole) 159.7 Synonyms Di iron trioxide Mineral of identical or similar composition Hematite Other identity code: Related CAS No. Hematite (Fe2O3) 1317-60-8 REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and restriction of Chemicals) registration No. 01- 2119474335-36-0013 DRI pellets donot contain CaO while BF grade pellets are fluxing pellets containing CaO. For BF grade pellets reducibility and swelling index are important properties while for DRI grade disintegration is an important property. The properties of pallets are given in Tab 2. Tab 2 Properties of pellets Size 8-20 mm Appearance Granular Colour Dark grey Odour Odourless pH (40 gm/L,20Deg C; slurry in water) 5.0 – 8.0 Melting point 1500-1600 deg C Bulk density 2.0 -2.2 t/Cum Water solubility Insoluble Oil solubility Insoluble Tumbler index (+6.3 mm) 93-94 % Abrasion index (-0.5 mm) 5-6...

Talent Management

Talent Management An organization survives if it meets its business goals. For successful achievement of the business goals the organization must have the required talent. Talent comes through its human resource which mainly consists of the people working in the organization. Talent management (TM) is a set of continuous and integrated human resource (HR) processes which are designed to attract, develop, motivate, and retain productive and engaged employees. Main HR processes of TM are recruiting, training, managing, supporting, compensating and motivating the people of the organization. The objective of talent management in an organization is to create a high performance work force that helps in the organizational sustainability as well helps the organization in meeting its strategic and operational goals and objectives. The wheel of the talent management is shown in Fig 1. Fig 1 Talent management wheel Principles of talent management There are six talent management principles. These are described below. Alignment with strategy – Corporate strategy is the natural starting point for thinking about talent management. Strategic planning of the organization is to align with attracting, recruiting, developing and deploying the right people to drive the effort. Talent management goals are to be integrated with the business planning process and achievements of these goals are to be tracked through the management processes. Internal consistency – Implementing practices in isolation may not work and can actually be counter­productive. The principle of internal consistency refers to the ways the organization’s talent management practices fit with each other. Consistency is crucial. As an example, if an organization invests significantly in developing and training high-potential individuals, it should emphasize employee retention, competitive compensation and career management. It also should empower employees to contribute to the organization and reward them for initiative. Cultural embeddedness – In an...

Process Control System Dec28

Process Control System...

Process Control System A process is broadly defined as an operation that uses resources to transform inputs into outputs. It is the resource that provides the needed energy to the process for the transformation to occur. In the context of an industry the term ‘process’ as used in the term ‘process control’ refers to the methods of changing and refining of raw materials that remain in a solid, liquid, gaseous, fluid or slurry state  to create end products of specified properties. The raw materials during the process are transferred, measured, mixed, heated or cooled, filtered, stored or handled in a way so that the desired output is obtained. During the process the raw materials undergo physical and chemical changes for their conversion into the end products. Normally an industry operates a number of processes where each process exhibits a particular dynamic (time varying) behaviour that governs the transformation. The dynamic behaviour is determined by the physical and chemical properties of the inputs, the resource and the process itself. Process control refers to the methods that are employed for controlling the variables of the process or processes used in the manufacturing of a product. It is the act of controlling a final control element to change manipulated variable to maintain the process variable at a desired set point. These variables can be in process inputs, in process parameters and in process output. Control of the process is done to reduce its variability for getting aimed product quality, improving the production rates, increasing the efficiency of the process, facilitating protection of the environment and ensuring safety of the men and equipment employed for the process. A corollary to the process control is that a controllable process must behave in a predictable manner. For a given change...

Fire Resistant Steels...

Fire Resistant Steels Steel is inherently a noncombustible material. It loses strength when heated sufficiently.  Steel structural properties and its yield strength considerably decrease when it is heated to temperatures seen in a fire scenario. The critical temperature of a steel structural member is the temperature at which it cannot safely support its load. Building codes and structural engineering standard practice defines different critical temperatures depending on the structural element type, configuration, orientation, and loading characteristics. The critical temperature is often considered the temperature at which its yield stress has been reduced to 60 % of the room temperature yield stress. Fire is a chemical phenomenon that occurs as a result of thermal processes. When a steel section is exposed to a fire then the level of temperature increase on the face of steel section depends on thermal inertia, exposure of surface area and the protective coating. As the rate and amount of heat flow from the fire environment to steel section increase, the temperature, and thus the risk of failure for the steel section also increases. Since the steel has a very high thermal conductivity, exposed surface of the steel section easily transmits the conveyed heat from the fire source to the other members of the whole structure in a short period of time. Heat is transmitted in between the steel sections from high temperature sections to low temperature sections by way of conduction, radiation or convection modes. Steel sectional properties and its yield strength considerably reduce as it absorbs heat upon exposure to a high temperature level. A steel structural member may easily collapse during a fire if the temperature is allowed to reach a critical value. The fire resistance of the steel member is related to some important factors including the section size, the perimeter...

Managerial Process Control...

Managerial Process Control A process is broadly defined as an operation that uses resources to transform inputs into outputs. It is the resource that provides the needed energy to the process for the transformation to occur. In an organization there are two types of processes. One are those processes that create, produce, and delivers products and services while the second type of processes are those which do not produce outputs bur are still necessary in the functioning of the organization. The first group of the processes can be called work processes while the second type of the processes can be called administrative processes. Both the types of the processes are important for the functioning of the organization and need adequate process control activities for their successful implementation. In process control, two types of variable exist. They are manipulated variables which can be adjusted and the controlled variables which are affected by the adjustments. Process control is an important function of the management of an organization. Through process control it is ensured that the activities are under control and are giving the desired results. Process control determines that all the management processes are controllable processes that behave in a predictable manner. It shows that for a given change in the manipulated variable, the process variable responds in a predictable and consistent manner. Process control refers to the methods that are employed for controlling the variables of the management process. It is the control process through which managers assure that actual activities conform to the planned activities. Process control finds out the deviations between the actual performance and the standard performance for taking the necessary steps to prevent such variances in future. It also measures the current performance and guides it towards some predetermined objectives. It...