Tin Free Steel

Tin Free Steel Tin free steel (TFS) is an electrolytic chrome plated steel consisting of a thin layer of chromium and a layer of chromium oxide deposited on a cold rolled steel base (black plate steel) which gives it a beautiful, lustrous metallic finish on both sides. It is also known as electrolytic chromium coated steel (ECCS). TFS offers outstanding corrosion resistance, lacquer adhesion as well as printability. It is an economical and high quality replacement for tinplate. It is not suitable for soldering and can only be used for welding after edge cleaning. ECCS must be lacquered on both surfaces. TFS has been developed to meet economic requirements, and excels tinplate in paintability, paint adhesion and economy. It is widely used for making beverage can and 18 litre cans. It is also used for making photographic film cases and as a protective material for optical fiber cables. The cross section of tin free coating on steel sheet is given in Fig 1. Fig 1 Cross section of tin free coating on steel sheet Features of tin free steel  The main features of tin free steel are given below: Paint adhesion – TFS has excellent paint adhesion properties which is far better than those of tinplate. The external surfaces of cans should be painted to prevent corrosion. The internal surfaces should also be painted to prevent corrosion except when the content is motor oil or cooking oil. Heat resistance – High temperature baking (around 400 deg C) causes neither discoloration nor deterioration in material properties in TFS steel. Resistance to black sulphide stain – TFS steel has excellent resistance to black sulphide stain. Due to it TFS is the most suitable material or making fish cans. Appearance – TFS steel provides the unique surface luster characteristic of metallic chromium even...

Work Improvements through suggestion schemes...

Work Improvements through suggestion schemes Creative talent exists in every individual. Everyone is well placed to suggest improvements in the way his job is done. Every individual takes an interest and pride in his work and is keen to make continuous improvements to his organization. His job becomes more meaningful and interesting when he is given an opportunity to make continuous improvements in his work. A suggestion scheme is a methodical tool of the management of an organization for improvement. It is also called employee suggestion scheme (ESS). By implementing suggestion schemes, organizations improve their profits, reduce costs, enhance employee’s morale, improve retention of employees, facilitate innovation and improve responsiveness to the public by improvements in service. ESS are mutually beneficial to both employers and employees. In an organization, many of the processes are driven by set procedures and instructions. Sometimes a necessity arises to modify procedures and instructions either because of a need arisen due to change in the external environment or because of some mistakes in the procedure or instructions. Suggestion schemes help in the process of initiating such modifications. Employees find their job more meaningful and interesting when they participate in the decision making process. Also they identify with the organization and pledge their commitment to improvement in productivity, improved service and management practice. Therefore suggestion scheme can benefit an organization significantly, if it is implemented with a correct approach. Definition A suggestion scheme can be defined as a management tool, which encourages employees to contribute ideas for improvement and innovation in the organization. It is based on rationale that creative talent exists in each individual and he has the ability and is well placed to make suggestions to improve the way his job is being done. A suggestion scheme can...

Technologies for improvement in Coking process in Byproduct Coke Ovens Jul31

Technologies for improvement in Coking process in Byproduct Coke Ovens...

Technologies for improvement in Coking process in Byproduct Coke Ovens Coking coals are converted to coke in large byproduct coke oven batteries. The coking process consists of heating blend of crushed coking coals in the absence of air to drive off the volatile compounds. The resulting coke is a hard, but porous carbon material which is used for the reduction of iron bearing materials in a blast furnace. The byproduct coke oven also recovers volatile chemicals in the form of coke oven gas, ammonium sulphate, tars, and oils. In last three to four decades several technologies have been developed which have not only resulted into vast improvements in the process of coking in the byproduct coke oven batteries but also have improved the quality of produced metallurgical coke. Majors of these technologies are given below. Selective crushing of coals This technology is a theoretically sound technology and aims at controlling the degree of crushing of the different constituents of coal.  It aims to improve homogeneity of reactive and inert components in coal. The reactive components of coals are primarily vitrinites and are the softest constituents while the mineral matters of coals are the hardest components. In conventional coal crushing units, the vitrinites get crushed to a relatively finer size compared to mineral matter constituents when the entire coal is crushed together. For producing coke of higher quality, it is desirable to crush the mineral matter finer than the vitrinite component of the coal so that during the process of coking, when the coal charge softens, the mineral matter is assimilated better, leading to the improved strength. This is usually carried out by crushing of coals in two stages. This technology is helpful when coals are petrographically heterogeneous. Coal moisture control Coal moisture control uses...

Coal

Coal Coal is a combustible compact black or brownish black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. It is formed from vegetation, which has been consolidated between other rock strata and altered by the combined effects of pressure and heat over millions of years to form coal seams. The harder forms can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of its exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. The quality of each coal deposit is determined by temperature and pressure and by the length of time in formation, which is referred as its ‘organic maturity’. The degree of change undergone by a coal as it matures from peat to anthracite is known as coalification. Coalification has an important bearing on the physical and chemical properties of coal and is referred to as the ‘rank’ of the coal. Ranking is determined by the degree of transformation of the original plant material to carbon. The ranks of coals, from those with the least carbon to those with the most carbon, are lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous and anthracite. Low rank coals are typically softer, friable materials with a dull and earthy appearance. Higher rank coals are generally harder and stronger and often have a black and vitreous luster. Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with varying amounts of other elements mainly hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. High-rank coals are high in carbon and therefore heat value, but low in hydrogen and oxygen. Low-rank coals are low in carbon but high in hydrogen and oxygen content. The relative amount of moisture, volatile matter, and fixed carbon content varies from one to the other end of the coalification series. The moisture and volatile matter decrease with enhancement of rank while carbon content increases i.e., carbon content is lowest in peat and highest in anthracite. The quality of...

Leader and leadership...

Leader and leadership Leadership is a process of social influence by which a leader enlists the aid and support of the followers in the accomplishment of a common task. It can be defined as the ability of a person to get others to willingly follow. It is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. It is a way of focusing and motivating group of people to enable them to achieve their aims. It makes the people accountable and responsible for the organization as a whole. It is the process of guiding people while operating to meet organizational requirements and improving the organization through a change. Leadership style is the style of the leader to provide direction, to implement plans, and to motivate people. It is the result of the philosophy, personality, and experience of the leader. Different types of leadership styles are prevalent. They are (i) engaging style, (ii) autocratic style (iii) participative or democratic style, (iv) free rein style, (v) self loving style, (vi) toxic style, (vii) task oriented style and (viii) relationship oriented style. Different situations call for different leadership styles. In an emergency when there is little time to converge on an agreement and where a designated authority has significantly more experience or expertise than the rest of the team, an autocratic leadership style may be most effective; however, in a highly motivated and aligned team with a homogeneous level of expertise, a more participative or democratic style may be more effective. The style adopted should be the one that most effectively achieves the objectives of the organization while balancing the interests of different persons. A leader is a person who organizes...